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This coffee-table book spotlights 100 Washington towns with populations under 3,500, with full-color photographs, fun facts, and details about what makes each community unique.

Bibliography for Little Washington by Nicole Hardina

Neah Bay

Alexander, Alice. “Back When: The History of Neah Bay Is Remembered.” Peninsula Daily News, Port Angeles, WA, May 6, 2018. http://www.peninsuladailynews.com/life/back-when-the-history-of-neah-bay-is-remembered.

Data USA. “Neah Bay, WA.” http://www.datausa.io/profile/geo/neah-bay-wa.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries. “Makah Tribal Whale Hunt,” June 12, 2019. http://fisheries.noaa.gov/west-coast/makah-tribal-whale-hunt.

———. “Makah Tribe’s Request to Hunt Gray Whales Moves Forward,” May 2, 2019. http://fisheries.noaa.gov/feature-story/makah-tribes-request-hunt-gray-whales-moves-forward.

Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission. “Historic Whale Skeleton Installed in Makah Cultural and Research Center,” December 5, 2005. http://www.nwifc.org/historic-whale-skeleton-installed-in-makah-cultural-and-research-center.

Makah Museum, Neah Bay, WA. Visited July 10, 2019.

———. “Ozette Archaeological Site.” http://www.makahmuseum.com/about/ozette-archaeological-site.

Makah Tribe. “Tribal Info, History, and More.” http://www.makah.com/makah-tribal-info.

———. “Makah Whaling & Whale Hunt.” http://www.makah.com/makah-tribal-info/whaling.

National Trust for Historic Preservation. “Cape Flattery Lighthouse.” http://www.savingplaces.org/places/cape-flattery-lighthouse.

Oldham, Kit. “Makah Whaling.” HistoryLink.org, February 26, 2003. http://www.historylink.org/file/5301.

University of Washington Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest. “III. A History of Treaty Making and Reservations on the Olympic Peninsula.” http://www.tinyurl.com/uw-cspn-iii.

Quilcene

Hoh Tribe. “History,” March 8, 2011. http://www.hohtribe-nsn.org/our-history.

CensusViewer.com. “Quilcene, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Quilcene.

HistoryLink.org. “Quinault Treaty, 1856,” January 1, 2000. http://www.historylink.org/file/2633.

———. “Treaty of Point No Point, 1855,” January 15, 2004. http://www.historylink.org/file/5637.

Kuehl, Viviann. ” ‘Pearl of the Peninsula’ Is Quilcene’s Moniker.” Port Townsend Leader, Port Townsend, WA, April 26, 2011. http://www.ptleader.com/stories/pearl-of-the-peninsula-is-quilcenes-moniker,52361.

McClary, Daryl C. “Jefferson County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, September 26, 2005. http://www.historylink.org/file/7472.

National Park Foundation. “Olympic National Park.” http://www.nationalparks.org/explore-parks/olympic-national-park.

National Park Service. “Olympic National Park: Park Statistics.” http://www.nps.gov/olym/learn/management/statistics.htm.

———. “Olympic National Park: Visiting the Hoh Rain Forest.” http://www.nps.gov/olym/planyourvisit/visiting-the-hoh.htm.

National Register of Historic Places. “Supplementary Listing Record: Hamilton-Worthington House.” NRIS Reference 14000849, October 8, 2014. http://www.nps.gov/nr/feature/places/pdfs/14000849.pdf.

Northwest Power and Conservation Council. “George Vancouver.” http://www.nwcouncil.org/reports/columbia-river-history/vancouvergeorge.

One Square Inch: A Sanctuary for Silence at Olympic National Park (website). http://www.onesquareinch.org.

US Forest Service. “Olympic National Forest: Mt. Walker Viewpoint.” http://www.fs.usda.gov/recarea/olympic/recarea/?recid=47889.

Worthington Park, Quilcene, WA. “Welcome to Worthington Park.” http://www.worthingtonparkquilcene.org.

Cosmopolis

CensusViewer.com. “Cosmopolis, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Cosmopolis.

City of Cosmopolis, WA. “History.” http://www.cosmopoliswa.gov/history.html.

The Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation. “People of the Sands.” http://www.chehalistribe.org/our-story/people-of-the-sands.

Grays Harbor Genealogical Society, Aberdeen, WA. “Grays Harbor History.” http://www.graysharborgenealogy.com/ghhistory.php.

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) Project, University of Washington. “Red Harbor: The IWW in Grays Harbor, Washington.” http://depts.washington.edu/iww/red_harbor.shtml.

National Park Service. “Olympic National Park: Olympic Fun Facts.” http://www.nps.gov/olym/learn/management/olympic-fun-facts.htm.

National Register of Historic Places. “Nomination Form: Neil Cooney Mansion.” OMB no. 1024-0018, June 15, 1983. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/e4aedc77-767b-4329-be70-693b5f7157fc.

Port of Grays Harbor, WA. “GH Designated Site For SR520 Pontoon Project,” October 2010. http://www.portofgraysharbor.com/news/2010/pontoon-project.php.

University of Washington Pacific Coast Architectural Database. “Weyerhaeuser Timber Company, Pulp Mill, Cosmopolis, WA.” http://pcad.lib.washington.edu/building/20049.

USHistory.com. “The Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis.” http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1552.html.

Wilma, David. “Grays Harbor County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, May 27, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7766.

Weyerhaeuser Investor Relations. “Weyerhaeuser Announces Mill Closures in Southwest Washington State,” October 21, 2005. http://www.tinyurl.com/weyerhaeuser-mill-closures.

Oakville

Buzzfile. “Willis Enterprises, Inc.” http://www.buzzfile.com/business/Willis-Enterprises,-Inc.-360-273-9266.

CensusViewer.com. “Oakville, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Oakville.

Davis, Kelle A. From Lower Fords Prairie to Poverty Flats: Stories of Some of the White Settlers of the Oakville Area, 1850–1900. 2nd ed. Oakville, WA: Davis Creek Farm, 1991.

Forsyth, Ashley. “Bank Robbed Seven Times Saturday.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, July 5, 2004. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-7-5-04.

Henley, Nicole. “The Blobs That Fell from the Sky.” Medium, August 22, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/blobsthatfell.

KXRO News Radio, Aberdeen, WA. “20 Years Later: The Oakville Blob,” August 7, 2019. http://www.kxro.com/20-years-later-the-oakville-blob.

McClurg, Dian. “Oakville Celebrates Zucchini.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, September 8, 2003. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-9-8-03.

Nailon, Jordan. “Oakville’s Gray Goat Fills a Restaurant Void.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, April 21, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-4-21-17.

Oakville School District, Oakville, WA. “About Our School District.” http://www.oakvilleschools.org/District/8-About-Our-School-District.html.

Ruby, Robert H., John A. Brown, and Cary C. Collins. A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest. 3rd ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013.

Rubin, Will. “Only Tavern Building in Oakville Appears Destined for Demolition.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, November 22, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-11-22-18.

USHistory.com. “The Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis.” http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1552.html.

The Vidette, Montesano, WA. “Holy Lamb Organics’ New Owners Are Expanding,” August 30, 2018. http://www.thevidette.com/news/holy-lamb-organics-new-owners-are-expanding.

Washington State Employee Security Department. “Grays Harbor County Profile.” http://esd.wa.gov/labormarketinfo/county-profiles/grays-harbor.

Wilhelm, Honor J. “Oakville, Washington.” The Coast. Vol. 11, no. 1. Vancouver, BC: Coast Publishing Company, 1906. http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Coast.html?id=KLIRAAAAYAAJ.

McCleary

CensusViewer.com. “McCleary, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/McCleary.

The Daily World, Aberdeen, WA. “Fate of McCleary Museum Up in Air,” September 7, 2019. http://www.thedailyworld.com/news/fate-of-mccleary-museum-up-in-air.

Fattig, Charles. Interview with the author, May 20, 2019.

Lewis, Jone Johnson. “Temperance Movement and Prohibition Timeline.” ThoughtCo., January 18, 2019. http://www.thoughtco.com/temperance-movement-prohibition-timeline-3530548.

Lotz, Kristina. “Have a Beary Good Time at the 60th McCleary Bear Festival.” Grays Harbor Talk (blog), June 25, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/mcclearybearfest.

McClary, Daryl C. “McCleary: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, December 31, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/8046.

Thompson, Linda. “A Brief History of McCleary’s Moonshining Days.” The Vidette, Montesano, WA, August 19, 2016. http://www.thevidette.com/opinion/opinion-a-brief-history-of-mcclearys-moonshining-days.

———. “A Look Back at McCleary’s ‘Second Growth Festival.’ ” The Vidette, Montesano, WA, June 27, 2019. http://www.thevidette.com/news/a-look-back-at-mcclearys-second-growth-festival.

———. “McCleary Bear Festival Beginnings.” The Vidette, Montesano, WA, June 22, 2017. http://www.thevidette.com/opinion/opinion-mccleary-bear-festival-beginnings.

Harstine Island

Anonymous Harstine Islander. Interview with the author, 2019.

Berkshire Hathaway Home Services–Northwest Real Estate, Shelton (WA) Office. “Harstine Island.” http://www.bhhsshelton.com/harstineisland.aspx.

Conklin, Ellis E. “Crankster Gangster.” Seattle Weekly, April 10, 2013. http://www.tinyurl.com/crankster.

Harstine Community Club, Harstine Island, WA. “Cable Link to Harstine Lines Now Complete (November 27, 1947).” http://www.tinyurl.com/harstine-1947.

———. “Cemetery History.” http://www.harstinecc.org/cemetery-history.

———. “Hall History.” http://www.harstinecc.org/about/hall-history.

Hartstene Pointe Maintenance Association, Harstine Island, WA. “Hartstene Pointe: Our Place.” http://www.tinyurl.com/hartstene-pointe.

Meany, Edmond S. “Origin of Washington Geographic Names.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 10, no. 2. Seattle: The Washington University State Historical Society, 1919. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/5963/5037.

National Institutes of Health. Native Voices: Native Peoples’ Concepts of Health and Illness. “Timeline: Renewing Native Ways, 1991.” http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/571.html.

Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board. “Squaxin Island Tribe.” http://www.npaihb.org/member-tribes/squaxin-island-tribe.

Olympia Yacht Club, Olympia, WA. “Pickering Passage, Part I.” http://www.olympiayachtclub.org/sitepage/pickering-passage-pt.-i.

Salish Seafoods. “About Salish Seafoods.” http://www.salishseafoods.com.

Smithsonian Institution. “The US Goes to Sea: Wilkes Expedition.” http://www.timeandnavigation.si.edu/navigating-at-sea/us-goes-to-sea/wilkes-expedition.

Wilma, David. “Mason County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, April 30, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7730.

Port Gamble

Belle, Rachel. “What’s the Deal with Port Gamble? The Mystery Behind This Little Slice of Americana.” MyNorthwest.com/KIRO Radio, Seattle, July 21, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/whatsthedealwithportgamble.

Long, Priscilla. “Hood Canal Bridge Sinks During a Severe Storm on February 13, 1979.” HistoryLink.org, August 5, 2003. http://www.historylink.org/file/5501.

Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe. “History.” http://pgst.nsn.us/land-and-people-and-lifestyle/history.

Port Gamble Weddings, Port Gamble, WA. http://www.facebook.com/portgambleweddings.

Study.com. “Hood Canal Bridge: History & Construction.” http://www.study.com/academy/lesson/hood-canal-bridge-history-construction.html.

Town of Port Gamble, WA. “About Port Gamble.” http://www.portgamble.com/about-port-gamble.

Washington State Department of Transportation. “Hood Canal Bridge Common Questions.” http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/bridge/our-bridges/movable/hood-canal-bridge-common-questions.

Wilma, David. “Port Gamble: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, August 7, 2003. http://www.historylink.org/file/5505.

Long Beach

CensusViewer.com. “Long Beach, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Long%20Beach.

Chinook Indian Nation (website). http://www.chinooknation.org.

City of Long Beach, WA. “Long Beach History.” http://www.longbeachwa.gov/recreation/town-history.

Cranberry Museum, Long Beach, WA (website). http://www.cranberrymuseum.com/museum.

Data USA. “Long Beach, WA.” http://www.datausa.io/profile/geo/long-beach-wa.

Holton, R. James. Chinook Jargon: The Hidden Language of the Pacific Northwest. San Leandro, CA: Wawa Press, 2004. http://www.rjholton.com.

Jones, Liz. “When Did Northwesterners Stop Speaking Chinook Jargon?” KUOW Radio, Seattle, February 21, 2016. http://archive.kuow.org/post/when-did-northwesterners-stop-speaking-chinook-jargon.

King, Marsha. “Tribes Confront Painful Legacy of Indian Boarding Schools.” The Seattle Times, February 3, 2008. http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/tribes-confront-painful-legacy-of-indian-boarding-schools.

Long Beach Razor Clam Festival, Long Beach, WA. “Long Beach Razor Clam Festival History.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/longbeachrazorclamfest.

NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center. “Long Beach, Washington, Community Profile.” http://www.tinyurl.com/longbeachwa-noaa.

Ott, Jennifer. “Long Beach: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, September 29, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9596.

World Kite Museum (website), Long Beach, WA. http://www.kitefestival.com.

Ilwaco

Becker, Paula. “Ilwaco: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, March 28, 2012. http://www.historylink.org/file/10055.

CensusViewer.com. “Ilwaco, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Ilwaco.

Columbia Pacific Heritage Museum, Ilwaco, WA. Land of the Canoe People exhibit. Visited June 2018.

———. National Motor Lifeboat School exhibit. Visited June 2018.

———. The Object of Your Mission exhibit. Visited June 2018.

Discovering Lewis & Clark (website). http://www.lewis-clark.org//home?ArticleID=1013.

Majors, Harry A. Exploring Washington. Holland, MI: Van Winkle Publishing Company, 1975.

Nicholson, C. Brid. Documents of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2018.

Nisbet, Jack and Claire. “Comcomly (1760s?–1830).” HistoryLink.org, March 19, 2012. http://www.historylink.org/file/10042.

Schroeder, Diane and Richard. Interview with the author, June 23, 2018.

TrailTribes.org. “Chiefs and Tribal Leadership.” http://www.trailtribes.org/fortclatsop/leadership.htm.

Washington State Parks. “Cape Disappointment State Park.” http://parks.state.wa.us/486/Cape-Disappointment.

South Bend

CensusViewer.com. “South Bend, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/South%20Bend.

City of South Bend, WA. “A Short History of South Bend.” http://www.southbend-wa.gov/mainhome/history.

Morehead, John. A. “Kidnapping the County Seat.” http://www.co.pacific.wa.us/courthouse/kidnappi.htm.

Story, Virginia. “Pacific County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, October 26, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7914.

Cathlamet

AAANativeArts.com. “Chinookan Language Family.” http://www.aaanativearts.com/chinookan_language_family.htm.

Data USA. “Cathlamet, WA.” http://www.datausa.io/profile/geo/cathlamet-wa.

Elliott, Linda. “Cathlamet: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, February 3, 2009. http://www.historylink.org/file/8917.

Native Indian Tribes. “Wahkiakum Tribe: Facts, Clothes, Food and History.” http://www.warpaths2peacepipes.com/indian-tribes/wahkiakum-tribe.htm.

Oldham, Kit. “Wahkiakum County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, November 18, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/8011.

Wahkiakum County, WA. “About Us.” http://www.co.wahkiakum.wa.us/349/About-Us.

Zimmerman, Diana. “Giants in the Trees.” The Focus on Wahkiakum: A Special Edition Published by the Wahkiakum County Eagle, Cathlamet, WA, May 24, 2018. B2–B7. http://www.issuu.com/wahkiakumrick/docs/focus_2018_s.

Pe Ell

Associated Press. “Unusual Names, Odd Spellings Found in Washington.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, December 24, 1977. A12. http://www.tinyurl.com/s-r-12-24-1977.

Mikkelsen, Drew. “4-Day School Week? This Western Washington District Is Interested.” KING5.com (KING-TV), Seattle, May 30, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/king5-pe-ell.

Brown, Alex. “Quinault Nation Raises Concerns as Dam Review Begins.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, September 24, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-9-24-18.

CensusViewer.com. “Pe Ell, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Pe%20Ell.

Kunkler, Aaron. “Pe Ell Divided on the Dam? Residents Voice Conflicting Opinions on Flood Reduction Proposal.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, November 18, 2016. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-11-18-16.

———. “Army Corps to Explore Alternatives as Chehalis River Dam Review Moves Forward.” The Daily Chronicle via TheDailyWorld.com, May 7, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-5-7-19.

DiscoverLewisCounty.com. “Northern Pacific Railway Newaukum River Bridge.” http://www.tinyurl.com/newaukum-bridge.

———. “Tour de Farms on the Willapa Hills Trail Fat Tire Ride.” http://www.tinyurl.com/tour-de-farms.

———. “Willapa Hills Trail.” http://www.discoverlewiscounty.com/outdoors/willapa-hills-trail.

Haven. “How Pe Ell Got Its Name.” Gathering the Stories (blog), December 19, 2014. http://www.tinyurl.com/how-pe-ell-got-its-name.

Hayes, Katie. “Fairyblossom Festival Moves to Pe Ell for Weekend of Mystical Folklore.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, June 21, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-6-21-18.

———. “Pe Ell’s Jones Creek Brewing to Raise Funds for Camp Fire Relief Fund.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, January 17, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-1-17-19.

Morgan, Jake. “Pe Ell.” http://www.lewiscountytribune.com/pe-ell.html.

Nix, Alma, and John Nix, eds. The History of Lewis County, Washington. Chehalis, WA: Lewis County Historical Society, 1985. http://files.usgwarchives.net/wa/lewis/history/lch-pt6.txt.

Tucker, Father Jim. “Sad Day in Pe Ell, Washington.” (Was a) Deacon’s Blog, March 6, 2010. http://www.tinyurl.com/sad-day-in-pe-ell.

Napavine

CensusViewer.com. “Napavine, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Napavine.

City of Chehalis, WA. “History of Chehalis, Washington.” http://www.tinyurl.com/historyofchehalis.

City of Napavine, WA. “Mayor Nicholas W. Bozarth.” http://www.cityofnapavine.com/mayorsoffice.html.

Google Public Data Explorer. “Population in the US: Napavine, WA.” http://www.tinyurl.com/google-publicdata-napavine-wa.

History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington. Vol. II. Portland: North Pacific History Company, 1889. http://books.google.com/books?id=-yVPAAAAYAAJ&source=gbs_similarbooks.

Lacitis, Eric. “Napavine’s Young Mayor Shakes up the Town.” The Seattle Times, June 23, 2008. http://www.tinyurl.com/nickbozarth.

Meany, Edmond S. “Origin of Washington Geographic Names.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 11, no. 1. Seattle: The Washington University State Historical Society, 1921. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/6027/5101.

McClurg, Dian. “Chehalis May Dispute Napavine Annexation.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, January 21, 2004. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-1-21-04.

Nailon, Jordan. “Two Ejected From Napavine Council Meeting as Citizens Vent.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, January 19, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-1-19-17.

Napavine School District. “About Our District.” http://www.napavineschools.org/home/about-us.

Stanton, Carrina. “Big Growth, Bigger Heart.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, September 24, 2005. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-9-24-05.

University of Washington Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest. “II. Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Placing Washington’s Forests in Historical Context.” http://www.tinyurl.com/uwcspn-ii.

University of Washington University Libraries Digital Collections. “Logging Crew and Donkey Engine Beside Railroad Track, Emery and Nelson, Inc., ca. 1917.” Photograph. http://www.tinyurl.com/logging-crew.

Wilhelm, Honor J. “Napavine, Washington.” The Coast. Vol. 17, no. 5. Vancouver, BC: Coast Publishing Company, 1909. http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Coast.html?id=0LARAAAAYAAJ.

Zander, Julie McDonald. Chehalis. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2011.

Vader

CensusViewer.com. “Vader, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Vader.

The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA. “Vader: What’s in a Name?,” July 3, 2006. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-7-3-06.

LaBoe, Barbara. “Vader School District Becomes a Memory.” Longview Daily News, Longview, WA, August 31, 2007. http://www.tinyurl.com/ldn-8-31-07.

Meany, Edmond S. “Origin of Washington Geographic Names.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 14, no. 1. Seattle: The Washington University State Historical Society, 1923. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/6382/5456.

National Register of Historic Places. “Registration Form: Grace Evangelical Church of Vader,” August 2, 2013. http://www.nps.gov/nr/feature/places/pdfs/13000712.pdf.

Nix, Alma, and John Nix, eds. The History of Lewis County, Washington. Chehalis, WA: Lewis County Historical Society, 1985. Posted at the USGenWeb Archives with permission of the Lewis County Historical Society. http://files.usgwarchives.net/wa/lewis/history/lch-pt5.txt.

Stanton, Carrina. “Vader or Little Falls? Voters to Decide.” The Daily Chronicle via KitsapSun.com, July 10, 2005. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-7-10-05.

Washington Secretary of State. “Legacy Washington: Vader Area.” http://sos.wa.gov/legacy/cities_detail.aspx?i=14.

Mossyrock

CensusViewer.com. “Mossyrock, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Mossyrock.

The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA. “A Mossy Rock Was Namesake for Central Lewis County Town.” July 1, 1976. C-11. http://www.newspapers.com/newspage/31206703.

Green, Sara Jean. “Receding Waters Allow Glimpse of Lost Logging Town.” The Seattle Times, March 11, 2008. http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/receding-waters-allow-glimpse-of-lost-logging-town.

Justia Law (website). “City of Tacoma v. Taxpayers of Tacoma.” http://www.law.justia.com/cases/washington/supreme-court/1957/33706-1.html.

Meany, Edmond S. History of the State of Washington. New York: Macmillan Company, 1909. http://books.google.com/books/about/History_of_the_State_of_Washington.html?id=1ex5AAAAMAAJ.

Northwest Power and Conservation Council. “Treaty of Oregon.” http://www.nwcouncil.org/reports/columbia-river-history/treatyoforegon.

Rosenberg, Matt. “Learn the History of the Battle for Oregon’s Northern Border.” ThoughtCo., February 13, 2018. http://www.thoughtco.com/fifty-four-forty-or-fight-1435388.

Ruby, Robert H., John A. Brown, and Cary C. Collins. A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest. 3rd ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013.

Rush, Jessica. “Mossyrock Woman Marooned in the South Pacific in 1917.” Lewis Talk (blog), February 14, 2019. http://www.lewistalk.com/2019/02/14/mossyrock-woman-marooned-in-the-south-pacific-in-1917.

———. “Remembering the Town of Riffe, Washington.” Lewis Talk (blog), June 30, 2017. http://www.lewistalk.com/2017/06/30/remembering-town-riffe-washington.

Schwartz, Eric. “Remembering Mayfield, the Town Beneath the Lake.” The Daily Chronicle via SeeSouthwestWA.com, June 16, 2015. Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/beneath-the-lake.

———. “Underwater Towns of the Cowlitz River,” July 10, 2018. The Daily Chronicle via SeeSouthwestWA.com, June 16, 2015. Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/underwatertowns.

Stepankowsky, Andre. “Tacoma Power Slates Meeting to Discuss Mossyrock Dam Safety, Recreation.” Longview Daily News, Longview, WA, May 3, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/ldn-5-03-19.

U.S. History: Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium (website). “54° 40′ or Fight.” http://www.ushistory.org/us/29b.asp.

Wilma, David. “Lewis County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, September 1, 2005. http://www.historylink.org/file/7449.

———. “Tacoma City Light’s Mossyrock Dam on the Cowlitz River Generates Electricity on October 13, 1968.” HistoryLink.org, December 16, 2002. http://www.historylink.org/file/5026.

Castle Rock

Bernstein, Robert S., Peter J. Baxter, Henry Falk, Roy Ing, Laurence Foster, and Floyd Frost. “Immediate Public Health Concerns and Actions in Volcanic Eruptions: Lessons from the Mount St. Helens Eruptions, May 18–October 18, 1980.” American Journal of Public Health 76 (March 1986), supplement: 25–37. http://www.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.76.Suppl.25.

Casey, Michael. “35 Years After Mount St. Helens Eruption, Nature Returns.” CBS News, May 18, 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/cbsnews-mt-st-helens.

CensusViewer.com. “Castle Rock, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Castle%20Rock.

Dean, Cornelia. “Clash Over Rebirth of Mt. St. Helens.” The New York Times, August 17, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/18/science/18helens.html.

Hattori, James. “Tourists, Their Dollars Flock to Mount St. Helens.” NBC News, October 9, 2004. http://www.tinyurl.com/nbcnews-mt-st-helens.

Irwin, Judith. “The Dispossessed: The Cowlitz Indians in Cowlitz Corridor.” Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History. Summer 1994.

Miller, Alice Stewart. “The Huntington Clan.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 26, no. 3. Seattle: The Washington University State Historical Society, 1935. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/9007/8042.

Mount St. Helens Creation Center (website), Castle Rock, WA. http://www.mshcreationcenter.org.

Rosenberg, Jennifer. “Learn About the Mt. St. Helens Eruption That Killed 57 People.” ThoughtCo., March 17, 2017. http://www.thoughtco.com/mt-st-helens-1779771.

Selander, Vicki. Castle Rock. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2009.

Washington Secretary of State. “Legacy Washington: Castle Rock Area.” http://sos.wa.gov/legacy/cities_detail.aspx?i=3.

———. “Legacy Washington: Cowlitz County.” http://sos.wa.gov/legacy/cities_detail.aspx?i=40.

Yacolt

Caldbick, John. “Yacolt: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, March 14, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9329.

CensusViewer.com. “Yacolt, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Yacolt.

Chelatchie Prairie Railroad. “History.” http://tickets.bycx.org/history.

Clark County: A History (blog). “Yacolt, Amboy.” http://history.columbian.com/yacolt-amboy.

Clark County, WA, Public Works. “Lucia Falls Regional Park.” http://clark.wa.gov/public-works/lucia-falls-regional-park.

———. “Moulton Falls Regional Park.” http://www.clark.wa.gov/public-works/moulton-falls-regional-park.

Eierdam, Viki. “Winery Group Seeking AVA Status.” Wine Press Northwest, updated August 1, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/sw-wa-winery-association.

Littman, Adam. “Yacolt Stands Against Gun-Control Law.” The Columbian, Vancouver, WA, June 18, 2019. http://www.columbian.com/news/2019/jun/18/yacolt-stands-against-gun-control-law.

Municipal Research and Services Center. “City and Town Classification.” http://www.tinyurl.com/mrsc-city-town.

Scott, Douglas. “Remembering the 1902 Yacolt Burn.” Clark County Talk (blog), July 24, 2017. http://www.clarkcountytalk.com/2017/07/24/yacolt-burn-history.

Vorenberg, Sue. “Small Town Big on Spirits: A Haunting in Yacolt?” The Columbian, Vancouver, WA, October 30, 2011. http://www.columbian.com/news/2011/oct/29/small-town-big-on-spirits-a-haunting-in-yacolt-spe.

Washington Department of Natural Resources. “The Yacolt Burn: A Look Back at Washington State’s Second-Largest Wildfire.” Ear to the Ground with DNR and Commissioner Franz (blog), July 31, 2014. http://www.tinyurl.com/yacoltfirewa.

North Bonneville

Brown, Dylan, E. “Tribes Displaced by Dams Wait for Homes Promised in 1937.” E&E News, January 5, 2016. http://eenews.net/stories/1060030127.

CensusViewer.com. “North Bonneville, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/North%20Bonneville.

Columbia Gorge Interpretive Center, Stevenson, WA. Thomas McNatt. Interpretive pamphlet, 2013. http://www.tinyurl.com/thomas-mcnatt.

The Columbia River: A Photographic Journey (website). “Bonneville Dam and Bonneville Reservoir.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/bonneville-dam-reservoir.

———. “North Bonneville, Washington.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/north-bonneville-wa.

Haglund, Noah. “Trump’s Bonneville Power Administration Selloff Is in Doubt.” Renton Reporter, Renton, WA, May 25, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/trump-bonneville.

Kenyon College Program in Environmental Studies. “The Economic Costs and Benefits of the Bonneville Dam.” http://www2.kenyon.edu/projects/Dams/bec03wilsona.html.

Skamania County, WA. Skamania County Ordinance 1984-2. Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/skamania-bigfoot-84.

US Army Corps of Engineers Digital Library. Fort Cascades Trail Guide. http://www.tinyurl.com/usace-fort-cascades.

Washington American History and Geneaology Project. “Washington Pioneer Dead of 1911.” http://www.ahgp.org/wa/washington-pioneer-dead-1911.html.

Washington Bigfoot. “Does Skamania County Ordinance Go Far Enough?” http://www.washingtonbigfoot.com/2015/08/22/does-skamania-county-ordinance-go-far-enough.

———. Skamania County Ordinance 69-01. http://www.tinyurl.com/skamania-bigfoot-69.

Washington Trails Association. “North Bonneville Heritage Trails.” http://www.wta.org/go-hiking/hikes/fort-cascades-loop.

Wilma, David. “Skamania County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, June 22, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7881.

Stevenson

Cascade Locks (OR) Tourism Committee. “Bridge of the Gods, Columbia River Gorge.” http://www.cascadelocks.com/about-cascade-locks/bridge-of-the-gods.

CensusViewer.com. “Stevenson, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Stevenson.

City of Stevenson, WA (website). http://www.cityofstevenson.com.

The Columbia River: A Photographic Journey. “Stevenson, Washington.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/stevenson-wa.

Griggs, Mary Beth. “This Is What It Looks Like When You Hike All 2,650 Miles of the Pacific Crest Trail.” SmithsonianMag.com, March 7, 2014. http://www.tinyurl.com/smithsonianmag-pct.

Lillegard, Stephanie. Interview with the author, July 4, 2019.

Pacific Crest Trail Association. “Bridge of the Gods and the Eagle Creek PCT: Alternate Route, Oregon.” http://www.tinyurl.com/botg-pct-or.

Pacific Northwest Seismic Network. “Cascadia Subduction Zone.” http://www.pnsn.org/outreach/earthquakesources/csz.

Skamania County (WA) Chamber of Commerce. “History.” http://www.skamania.org/history.

Washington Filmworks. “Stevenson: On the Banks of the Columbia River,” May 13, 2014. http://www.washingtonfilmworks.org/locations-2/stevenson-on-the-banks-of-the-columbia-river.

Washington State Association of Counties.”Skamania County Spotlight.” http://www.wsac.org/county-spotlights/county-spotlight-skamania.

Wilma, David. “Skamania County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, June 22, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7881.

Bucoda

Broadt, Lisa. “Bucoda Bar Celebrates 115 Years of Business.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, July 19, 2013. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-7-19-13.

CensusViewer.com. “Bucoda, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Bucoda.

Hoss, Ronald. “Bucoda Honors Memory of Community Activist.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, Jan 24, 2002. 7. http://www.newspaperarchive.com/centralia-chronicle-jan-24-2002-p-7.

Plog, Kari. “Hell on Earth: A Forgotten Prison That Predates McNeil Island.” KNKX Radio, Seattle/Tacoma, January 22, 2019. http://www.knkx.org/post/hell-earth-forgotten-prison-predates-mcneil-island.

SeattleBars.org. “Joe’s Place, Bucoda, WA.” http://www.seattlebars.org/2014/04/2170-joes-place-bucoda-wa-5172013.html.

Teixeira, Cindy. “Seatco Prisoners Final Resting Place in Forest Grove.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, October 15, 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-10-15-15.

Thurston County, WA. “Mutual Lumber Company.” http://www.co.thurston.wa.us/history/docs/markers/Mutual-Lumber-Company.pdf.

———. “Thurston County History People and Places.” http://www.thurstoncountywa.gov/history/Pages/default.aspx.

Town of Bucoda, WA (website). http://www.bucoda.us.

Tenino

CensusViewer.com. “Tenino, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Tenino.

Dwelley, Art. “A Brief History of Tenino.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/historybydwelley.

Grundhauser, Eric. “Why a Small Town in Washington State Is Still Printing Wooden Money.” Atlas Obscura, February 12, 2018. http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/washington-tenino-wooden-money.

Marshall, Patrick. “Tenino: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, December 23, 2014. http://www.historylink.org/file/10991.

Perednia, Graham. “Divers Plunge Into Murky Depths of Tenino Quarry Pool.” The Daily Chronicle, Centralia, WA, August 18, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/dailychron-8-18-17.

Tenino Area Chamber of Commerce, Tenino, WA. “History.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/tenino-wa-history.

———. Tenino Sandstone Walking Tour brochure.

———. “The History of Our City.” http://www.cityoftenino.us/community/page/history-our-city.

———. “The Naming of Tenino.” http://www.tinyurl.com/the-naming-of-tenino.

Tenino School District, Tenino, WA. “A Little More About Our District.” http://www.teninosd.org/our-district–8.

Tomtas, Justyna. “Tenino Elementary Students Embrace African Sister City.” The Olympian, Olympia, WA, February 21, 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/tenino-ghana.

USLegal.com. “The Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 Law and Legal Definition.” http://www.definitions.uslegal.com/t/the-donation-land-claim-act-of-1850.

Rainier

Banse, Tom. “Tribal Alliance Seeks to Restore Native Name for Mount Rainier.” NPR.org, February 6, 2012. http://www.tinyurl.com/ti-swap.

National Park Service. “Mount Rainier National Park: Archaeology.” http://www.nps.gov/mora/learn/historyculture/archaeology.htm.

———. “Mount Rainier National Park: Water Quality.” http://www.nps.gov/mora/learn/nature/waterquality.htm.

National Register of Historic Places. “Registration Form: Rainier School,” March 10, 2004. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/93b4b8cb-10a1-43c8-908b-2082e478f5f4.

Niche.com. “Explore Rainier School District.” http://www.niche.com/k12/d/rainier-school-district-wa.

Nisqually Indian Tribe. “Nisqually Stories.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/nisqually-stories.

Schwantes, Carlos A. “Tourists in Wonderland: Early Railroad Tourism in the Pacific Northwest.” Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History. Winter 1993–94.

Thurston (WA) Regional Planning Council. “History.” http://www.trpc.org/800/History.

Warn, Daniel. “Rainier Arts Commission Seeks Artwork for Gallery.” Nisqually Valley News, Yelm, WA, May 23, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/nvn-5-23-19.

———. “Rainier to Launch Summer Market.” Nisqually Valley News, Yelm, WA, March 7, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/nvn-3-7-19.

Washington Filmworks. “City of Rainier: Small Town Charm and Views of Mount Rainier,” July 11, 2017. http://www.washingtonfilmworks.org/locations-2/city-of-rainier.

Roy

Becker, Paula. “Pierce County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, November 13, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/8001.

CensusViewer.com. “Roy, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Roy.

Cihon, Brett. “Why Did a Roy Man Build This Unbelievable Ghost Town in His Own Back Yard? ‘I Was Bored.’ ” KCPQ-TV, Seattle, March 11, 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/ghost-town-in-his-backyard.

City of Roy, WA. “History.” http://www.cityofroywa.us/history.html.

Hirsch, Mark. “The Medicine Creek Treaty of 1854.” SmithsonianMag.com, March 23, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/smithsonianmag-medicine-creek.

MacIntosh, Heather M., and David Wilma. “Northern Pacific Railroad Announces Tacoma Terminus on July 14, 1873.” HistoryLink.org, February 22, 1999. http://www.historylink.org/file/922.

Nisqually Indian Tribe. “Heritage.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/nisqually-tribe-heritage.

Washington Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. “Washington Heritage Register: H. L. Wolf Feed & Implement Warehouse.” http://www.tinyurl.com/hl-wolf-warehouse.

South Prairie

American-Rails.com. “Northern Pacific Railway, Main Street of the Northwest.” http://www.american-rails.com/np.html.

Army Technology magazine. “The World’s Biggest Military Bases,” June 3, 2019. http://www.army-technology.com/features/feature-largest-military-bases-world-united-states.

Banel, Feliks. “The Forgotten Early History of Joint Base Lewis-McChord.” MyNorthwest.com/KIRO Radio, Seattle, July 10, 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/lewis-mcchord.

City-Data.com. “South Prairie, Washington (WA 98385).” http://www.city-data.com/city/south-prairie-washington.html.

Foothills Rails-to-Trails. “South Prairie.” http://www.piercecountytrails.org/cities/south-prairie.

National Register of Historic Places. “Nomination Form: William Bisson House,” February 19, 1982. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/112b7c80-9b91-44c1-806a-6e996d21483f.

Rhind, Bill. “The Flett Family’s Saga.” Lakewood Historical Society, September 17, 2013. http://www.lakewoodhistorical.org/programs/details.php?pageid=30.

TownCharts.com. “South Prairie, WA Demographics Data with Population from Census.” http://www.tinyurl.com/towncharts-south-prairie-wa.

Town of Wilkeson, WA. “Wilkeson Coke Ovens.” http://www.townofwilkeson.com/sample-page/wilkeson-coke-ovens.

Wilma, David. “Nisqually, Klickitat, and Yakama Warriors Battle U.S. Army Soldiers and Territorial Volunteers at Connell’s Prairie in March 1856.” HistoryLink.org, May 14, 2007. http://www.historylink.org/file/8145.

Beaux Arts Village

Banel, Feliks. “Seattle’s Long-Ago Battle to Honor Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.” MyNorthwest.com/KIRO Radio, Seattle, April 4, 2018. http://www.mynorthwest.com/946066/battle-honor-martin-luther-king-jr.

CensusViewer.com. “Beaux Arts Village, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Beaux%20Arts%20Village.

Dougherty, Phil. “Beaux Arts Village: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, February 14, 2016. http://www.historylink.org/file/11184.

Gore, Leada. “Senator, Slave Owner and Quite Possibly Gay, Alabama’s William Rufus King Was Country’s 13th VP.”AL.com, Birmingham, AL, July 4, 2014. http://www.tinyurl.com/william-rufus-king.

King County, WA. Motion No. 6461. http://www.tinyurl.com/kc-motion-6461.

Louisiana Office of the Lieutenant Governor. “The Beaux Arts Style.” http://www.tinyurl.com/the-beaux-arts-style.

Marshall, Pete. Interview with the author, May 7, 2019.

Murray, Cameron. “A Brief History of the École des Beaux-Arts.” Culture Trip, November 24, 2016. http://www.tinyurl.com/a-brief-history-edba.

Stevens, Thomas Robert. “Beaux Arts Ball History.” http://www.beauxartssociety.org/history.html.

Study.com. “Beaux-Arts Architecture: Definition, Characteristics & Style.” http://www.tinyurl.com/beaux-arts-architecture.

Town of Beaux Arts Village, WA. “History.” http://www.beauxarts-wa.gov/history.

Carnation

Carnation Farms. “History.” http://www.carnationfarms.org/our-story/our-story-slide-4.

CensusViewer.com. “Carnation, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Carnation.

City of Carnation, WA. “Carnation Receives $1.545 Million for the Tolt Avenue Downtown Revitalization Project,” January 31, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/carnation-wa-tolt-ave-project.

———. “Mayor’s Corner, November, 2019.” http://www.tinyurl.com/carnation-wa-mayors-corner.

———. “Tolt-MacDonald Park and Campground (King County Park).” http://www.tinyurl.com/tolt-mac-campground.

de Luna, Ruby. “Paddling Through Pumpkin Patches in Snoqualmie.” KUOW Radio, Seattle, October 25, 2019. http://www.kuow.org/stories/floods-devastate-snoqualmie-farms.

King County, WA. “Lower Tolt River Floodplain Restoration Project.” http://www.tinyurl.com/kcwa-lower-tolt-floodplain.

———. “Tolt MacDonald Park & Campground in King County.” http://www.tinyurl.com/kcwa-tolt-mac-park.

———. “Tolt River Corridor Planning and Capital Investment Strategy.” http://www.tinyurl.com/tolt-corridor.

Newell, Clayton R. The Regular Army Before the Civil War. Washington, DC: US Army Center of Military History, 2014. http://history.army.mil/html/books/075/75-1/CMH_Pub_75-1.pdf.

Palmer, Christine S. “Historic Overview: Carnation, Washington.” King County Cultural Resources Division, Parks, Planning and Resources Department. 1995. http://docplayer.net/183865478-Historic-overview-carnation-washington.html.

Remlinger Farms, Carnation, WA. “Welcome.” http://www.remlingerfarms.com/about.htm.

Savor Snoqualmie Valley–Mountains to Sound Greenway Trust. “Entwistle House (1912).” http://www.savorsnoqualmievalley.org/venue/entwistle-house-1912.

———. “Then and Now: Carnation Farms,” August 3, 2017. http://www.savorsnoqualmievalley.org/blog/now-carnation-farms.

Snoqualmie Indian Tribe. “About the Snoqualmie Indian Tribe.” http://www.snoqualmietribe.us/about.

Stein, Alan J. “Carnation (Tolt): Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, November 27, 1998. http://www.historylink.org/file/391.

Washington Secretary of State. “March Archives Treasure #1: 1857 Western WA Territory Map.” From Our Corner (blog), March 20, 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/from-our-corner-3-20-15.

Skykomish

Biography.com. “James J. Hill.” http://www.biography.com/business-figure/james-j-hill.

Cascadia Inn Historic Hotel & Cafe, Skykomish, WA. “History of Skykomish.” http://www.historiccascadia.com/history.

CensusViewer.com. “Skykomish, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Skykomish.

Greenfield Advisors. “BNSF Railway’s Massive Cleanup of Released Oil in Skykomish, Washington,” October 28, 2014. http://www.tinyurl.com/greeenfield-advisors-bnsf.

King County, WA. “King County History Quick Facts.” http://www.tinyurl.com/king-county-quick-facts.

McClary, Daryl C. “The Great Northern Railway Eight-Mile Tunnel is Dedicated on January 12, 1929.” HistoryLink.org, January 6, 2014. http://www.historylink.org/file/10705.

Stein, Alan J. “Skykomish: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, August 12, 1999. http://www.historylink.org/file/1623.

Town of Skykomish, WA. “History.” http://www.skykomishwa.gov/about.

University of Washington Libraries. “King County Snapshots.” http://content.lib.washington.edu/imls/kcsnapshots/history.html.

Young, Curt. “The Fall and Second Beginning of Skykomish: Skykomish 1956 to 2014.” Great Northern & Cascade Railway (website), January 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/skykomish-1956-2014.

Lopez Village

Ciskowski, Kathryn Nass. “Lopez Island: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, January 4, 2013. http://www.historylink.org/file/10261.

LeWarne, Charles Pierce. The Love Israel Family: Urban Commune, Rural Commune. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2017.

Lopez Island Historical Museum, Lopez Village, WA. Visited summer 2018.

National Park Service. “San Juan National Historic Park: The Pig War.” http://www.nps.gov/sajh/learn/historyculture/the-pig-war.htm.

San Juan County (WA) Department of Community Development. “2036 Comprehensive Plan Update: Population Projection.” http://www.tinyurl.com/sanjuanco-2036-plan.

Coupeville

CensusViewer.com. “Coupeville, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Coupeville.

Cooney, Elizabeth. “Hanging by a Thread.” Sea Star (newsletter), Washington Sea Grant, University of Washington, Autumn 2015. http://wsg.washington.edu/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/seastar/Sea-Star-Aut-2015.pdf.

Island County Historical Museum, Coupeville, WA. Where Sunnyside Sleeps. Educational film.

Muhich, Peri. “Mercer Girls.” HistoryLink.org, May 7, 1999. http://www.historylink.org/file/1125.

National Park Service. “Ebey’s Landing National Historical Reserve: History & Culture.” http://www.nps.gov/ebla/learn/historyculture/index.htm.

———. “Ebey’s Landing: Traces of the Chinese in the Reserve.” http://www.nps.gov/ebla/upload/Trace_%20of_the_Chinese.pdf.

———. “A Self-Guided Walking Tour of Historic Coupeville.” http://www.npshistory.com/brochures/ebla/coupeville-walking-tour.pdf.

———. “Visitor Guide to Ebey’s Landing National Historical Reserve.” 2015.

Penn Cove Shellfish. “Mussel Farming.” http://www.penncoveshellfish.com/mussel-farming.

Sheridan, Mimi, with McConnell/Burke Inc. How Coupeville Grew: A Short History of Town Development. Coupeville, WA: Town of Coupeville, 1998.

Sunnyside Cemetery (website), Coupeville, WA. http://www.sunnysidecemetery.org.

USLegal.com. “The Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 Law and Legal Definition.” http://definitions.uslegal.com/t/the-donation-land-claim-act-of-1850.

WhidbeyIsland.us. “Whidbey Island: Coupeville.” http://www.whidbeyisland.us/coupeville-wa.

Langley

CensusViewer.com. “Langley, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Langley.

Johnson, Larry E. “Puget Sound’s Mosquito Fleet.” HistoryLink.org, February 8, 1999. http://www.historylink.org/file/869.

Keeley, Sean. “That Time Washington Gave Women the Vote & Then Took It Away.” Curbed Seattle, October 12, 2016. http://www.tinyurl.com/washington-suffrage.

Langley Chamber of Commerce, Langley, WA. “DjangoFest Northwest.” http://www.visitlangley.com/lp/django-fest.

Langley Main Street Association, Langley, WA. “Langley History.” http://www.langleymainstreet.org/history.

———. “Downtown Buildings History Plaques.” http://www.langleymainstreet.org/2017/07/12/downtown-buildings-history-plaques.

Riddle, Margaret. “Langley: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, October 8, 2012. http://www.historylink.org/file/10220.

South Whidbey Historical Museum, Langley, WA. “When Women Ran Langley: 1920–1924.” Informational display.

Thompson, Evan. “Langley’s Annual Murder Mystery Weekend Draws Record Numbers.” South Whidbey Record, Oak Harbor, WA, February 28, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/langley-murder-mystery-weekend.

Trimbath, Tom. “In 1920, Women Took Over Langley and Made Things Respectable.” Curbed Seattle, October 17, 2016. http://www.tinyurl.com/langley-women-in-power.

Nooksack

Berger, Knute. “A Farming Tale: In Whatcom County, Farmers Have Much to Say About the Urban–Rural Divide.” Crosscut (website), January 10, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/a-farming-tale.

CensusViewer.com. “Nooksack, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Nooksack.

City of Nooksack, WA. City of Nooksack Comprehensive Land Use Plan: 2016–2036. Chap. 2, “Background, Vision and Goals.” http://www.tinyurl.com/nooksack-comprehensive-plan.

Gallagher, Dave. “How Fast Is Bellingham Moving Up the Metro Population List?” Bellingham Herald, Bellingham, WA, April 4, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/metro-bellingham-population.

Hiroko, Ashley. “Nooksack Fastest Growing of 35 School Districts.” Lynden Tribune, Lynden, WA, February 14, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/nooksack-schools.

———. “Nooksack’s $29.7 Million Bond Would Address K–5 Growth.” Lynden Tribune, Lynden, WA, November 21, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/nooksack-bond-issue.

Moles, Kathleen. “Everson: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, April 14, 2014. http://www.historylink.org/file/10775.

Nooksack Indian Tribe. “About Us.” http://www.nooksacktribe.org/about.

Nooksack Valley (WA) School District (website). http://www.nv.k12.wa.us.

Oakley, Janet. “Whatcom County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, July 31, 2005. http://www.historylink.org/file/7327.

USHistory.com. “Nooksack Indian Tribe.” http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1562.html.

Washington Rural Heritage (website). NookChat online video series. http://www.tinyurl.com/nooksack-nookchat.

Whatcom Council of Governments. “Whatcom County Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy,” March 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/whatcom-economic-development.

Whatcom County, WA. “Nooksack Valley Health Assessment Listening Session,” October 1, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/nooksack-health-assessment.

Sumas

CensusViewer.com. “Sumas, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Sumas.

City of Sumas, WA. “Sumas History.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/city-of-sumas-history.

Country Music Hall of Fame. “Loretta Lynn.” http://www.countrymusichalloffame.org/artist/loretta-lynn.

Nooksack Indian Tribe. “About Us.” http://www.nooksacktribe.org/about.

Kihn, Gail. Interview with the author, summer 2019.

Lynn, Loretta, with George Vecsey. Coal Miner’s Daughter. Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1976. Reprint, New York: Vintage Books/Knopf Doubleday, 2010.

Lynden Tribune and Ferndale Record. 2011 Northwest Washington Fair Magazine. http://www.issuu.com/lyndentribune/docs/2011_nwwfair_magazine.

Pen, John. Interview with the author, summer 2019.

La Conner

CensusViewer.com. “La Conner, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/LaConner.

City-Data.com. “La Conner, Washington.” http://www.city-data.com/city/La-Conner-Washington.html.

Hood, Michael. “La Conner: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, February 23, 2004. http://www.historylink.org/file/5655.

La Conner Chamber of Commerce, La Conner, WA. “Walking Tour of La Conner’s Historic Landmarks.” http://www.lovelaconner.com/wp-content/uploads/LaConner-Walking-Tour-of-Historical-Sites.pdf.

Nath, Anita, and HistoryLink Staff. “La Conner incorporates for the first time on November 20, 1883.” HistoryLink.org, January 15, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9251.

Skagit County Historical Museum, La Conner, WA. Bulb Production exhibit.

———. Damming and Diking exhibit.

Skagit River Journal of History and Folklore (website). “Magnus Anderson, Carpenter, Farmer, and Host at Fir.” http://www.tinyurl.com/srj-magnus-anderson.

Town of La Conner, WA. “Town History.” http://www.townoflaconner.org/155/Town-History.

Victory Horticultural Library. “Tillinghast Seed Company.” http://www.saveseeds.org/company_history/tillinghast.

Lyman

Cauvel, Kimberly. “Erosion Threatens Lyman Homes.” GoSkagit.com/Skagit Valley Herald, Mt. Vernon, WA, November 27, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/svh-11-27-17.

CensusViewer.com. “Lyman, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Lyman.

City-Data.com. “Lyman, Washington (WA 98263).” http://www.city-data.com/city/Lyman-Washington.html.

Population.us. “Lyman, WA, Population.” http://www.population.us/wa/lyman/.

Skagit River Journal of History and Folklore (website). “Birdsey Minkler: Part 1.” http://www.tinyurl.com/minkler-1.

———. “Birdsey Minkler: Part 2.” http://www.tinyurl.com/minkler-2.

———. “The Garfield Minkler Mystery: A Suicide That Some Still Call Murder.” http://www.tinyurl.com/minkler-murder-mystery.

———. “Hamilton, Washington: Chapter 1.” http://www.tinyurl.com/hamilton-wa-1.

Town of Lyman, WA. “The History of Lyman.” http://www.townoflyman.com/history.html.

Hamilton

Burkhalter, Aaron. “A Sense of Place: Hamilton.” GoSkagit.com/Skagit Valley Herald, Mt. Vernon, WA, April 15, 2012. http://www.tinyurl.com/hamilton-a-sense-of-place.

CensusViewer.com. “Hamilton, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Hamilton.

City-Data.com. “Hamilton, Washington (WA 98255).” http://www.city-data.com/city/Hamilton-Washington.html.

GhostTowns.com. “Hamilton.” http://www.ghosttowns.com/states/wa/hamilton.html.

Skagit River Journal of History and Folklore (website). “Hamilton, Washington: Chapter 1.” http://www.tinyurl.com/hamilton-wa-1.

———. “Hamilton, Washington: Chapter 2.” http://www.tinyurl.com/hamilton-wa-2.

———. “The Slipper Brothers Help Define Hamilton and the Sprinkle Sisters Tame Them.” http://www.tinyurl.com/slippers-sprinkles.

Wilkinson, Eric. “Fear of Flooding Has Washington Town Mulling a Move.” KING5.com (KING-TV), Seattle, updated September 15, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/hamilton-wa-mulls-move.

Concrete

CensusViewer.com. “Concrete, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Concrete.

Concrete Chamber of Commerce, Concrete, WA. “History.” http://www.concrete-wa.com/history.

Concrete Heritage Museum, Concrete, WA. “Concrete Herald Archives: 1913.” http://www.concreteheritagemuseum.org/1913.html.

———. “Historic Walking Tour Through the Town of Concrete 2018.” http://www.concreteheritagemuseum.org/walking-tour.html.

Concrete High School: Reunions, Alumni News, and Yanica Yearbooks (website). “Concrete High School Finest in the State,” compiled from the Concrete Herald, 1952. http://www.tinyurl.com/concrete-high.

Long, Priscilla. “Two Small Industrial Communities Merge to Form the Town of Concrete in 1909.” HistoryLink.org, July 20, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7857.

Skagit River Journal of History and Folklore (website). “Hamilton, Washington: Chapter 1.” http://www.tinyurl.com/hamilton-wa-1.

Spitzer, Gabriel, and Kevin Kniestedt. “How ‘War of the Worlds’ Caused Double the Panic for One Small Washington Town.” KNKX Radio, Seattle/Tacoma, October 30, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/wotw-concrete.

Darrington

Associated Press and Everett Herald Staff. “Logging Partnership Formed for Mount Baker–Snoqualmie National Forest.” HeraldNet.com, Everett, WA, July 10, 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/eh-7-10-05.

Darrington Collaborative, Darrington, WA. “Collaborative Basics.” http://www.darringtoncollaborative.org/collaborative-basics.

Discover Darrington. “Business Directory.” http://www.discoverdarrington.com/business-directory-1.

———. “Old Growth Reserve Loop.” http://www.tinyurl.com/old-growth-reserve-loop.

Oakley, Janet. “Darrington: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, January 17, 2009. http://www.historylink.org/file/8798.

Rankin, Dan. Interview with the author, March 19, 2019.

US Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. “Northwest Forest Plan.” http://www.tinyurl.com/usfs-northwest-forest-plan.

———. “Planning.” http://www.tinyurl.com/usfs-nw-forest-plan-2.

Washington Contract Loggers Association. “Timber Facts & Figures.” http://www.loggers.com/timber_facts.htm.

World Population Review. “Darrington, Washington Population 2020 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs).” http://www.worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/darrington-wa-population.

Index

Bush House Inn, Index, WA. “History of the Bush House.” http://www.bushhouseinn.com/history.

Cameron, David A. “A Brief History of Index, WA.” Friends of Heybrook Ridge, 2013. http://www.heybrookridge.org/history-of-index.

CensusViewer.com. “Index, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Index.

Index Historical Society, Index, WA. “Town History.” http://www.indexhistoricalsociety.org/?page_id=2.

Lindgren, Louise. “Index: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, September 4, 2009. http://www.historylink.org/file/9143.

———. Interview with the author, March 14, 2019.

University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections. “Lee Pickett Photographs of Washington State, 1909–1936.” http://www.content.lib.washington.edu/pickettweb/index.html.

Bingen

Alexander, Carmela, and Ruth Kirk. Exploring Washington’s Past: A Road Guide to History. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995.

Banyasz, Malin Grunberg. “Off the Grid: Columbia Hills Historical State Park, Washington.” Archaeology magazine, May/June 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/otg-columbia-hills.

Becker, Paula. “Klickitat County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, June 10, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7800.

Buzzfile. “SDS Lumber Co.” http://www.buzzfile.com/business/S.D.S.-Lumber-Co.-509-493-1444.

———. “Underwood Fruit and Warehouse Company, LLC.” http://www.buzzfile.com/business/Mt.-Adams-509-493-1722.

CensusViewer.com. “Bingen, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Bingen.

Gorge Heritage Museum, Bingen, WA. “The Feud.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/feud-in-bingen.

———. “Historical Figures.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/bingen-wa-history.

Haven. “The Legend of Tsagaglalal (She Who Watches).” Gathering the Stories (blog), October 26, 2013. http://www.tinyurl.com/she-who-watches.

An Illustrated History of Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties: With an Outline of the Early History of the State of Washington. Everett, MA: Interstate Publishing Company, 1904. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Klickitat_Yaki.html?id=K0k9GQAACAAJ.

SDS Lumber Company, Bingen, WA. “Early History of SDS Lumber Company.” http://www.tinyurl.com/sds-history.

US Postal Service. “Postmasters in the Mid-19th Century.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/usps-history.

Underwood Fruit & Warehouse Co. (website), Bingen, WA. http://www.underwoodfruit.com.

Tieton

Bay, Cody Ellard. “Travel to the Valley Village of Tieton.” Seattle Magazine, June 2011. http://www.seattlemag.com/article/travel-valley-village-tieton.

Becker, Paula. “Yakama Indian War Begins on October 5, 1855.” HistoryLink.org, February 26, 2003. http://www.historylink.org/file/5311.

CensusViewer.com. “Tieton, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Tieton.

Data USA. “Tieton, WA.” http://www.datausa.io/profile/geo/tieton-wa.

Farr, Sheila. “Tieton: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, August 6, 2018. http://www.historylink.org/file/20615.

Hunn, Eugene. “Anthropological Study of Yakama Tribe: Traditional Resource Harvest Sites West of the Crest of the Cascades Mountains in Washington State and Below the Cascades of the Columbia River.” Report commissioned for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (preliminary draft), October 11, 2003. http://docplayer.net/88644793-Anthropological-study-of-yakama-tribe.html.

Mighty Tieton, Tieton, WA. “Our Story.” http://www.mightytieton.com/our-story.

———. “Tieton’s History.” http://www.mightytieton.com/about-tieton.

Mullinax, T. J. “Erika Espinoza, a Young Grower from Tieton, Washington.” Good Fruit Grower, June 3, 2019. http://www.goodfruit.com/erika-espinoza-a-young-grower-from-tieton-washington.

Tieton Mosaic, Tieton, WA.”Tieton History Project.” http://www.tietonmosaic.com/project/tieton-history-project.

Tour de Tieton (website), Tieton, WA. http://www.tourdetieton.com.

Tú Decides (You Decide): A Bilingual Newspaper. “Latino Farmers Meet with New Washington Governor,” January 24, 2013. http://www.tinyurl.com/latino-farmers-meet-wa-gov.

US Department of Agriculture Research, Education & Ecomonics Information System. “Building Latino Farmers.” Grant proposal submitted by Building Washington’s Future and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, January 30, 2011. http://www.tinyurl.com/building-latino-farmers.

Naches

Ayer, Tammy. “Downtown Naches Tour of Historic Buildings Promises a Stroll Through the Past.” Yakima Herald, Yakima, WA, September 29, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/downtown-naches-tour.

Becker, Paula. “Yakima County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, February 25, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7651.

Brown, Patricia. “Historic Naches.” Upper Valley Bulletin Board. http://www.uppervalleybb.com/historicnaches.html.

Data USA. “Naches, WA.” http://www.datausa.io/profile/geo/naches-wa.

Ellensburg Daily Record, Ellensburg, WA. “So Long Sagebrush Annie,” March 25, 1960. 8. http://www.tinyurl.com/ellensburgrecord-3-25-60.

Washington State Wine. “Facts and Stats, Regions and AVAs: Naches Heights.” http://www.tinyurl.com/naches-heights-ava.

Yakima County, WA. “Yakima River Basin Flood History.” http://www.yakimacounty.us/415/yakima-river-basin-flood-history.

Yakima Valley Libraries. “Naches Community Library.” http://www.yvl.org/branch/naches-library.

Harrah

Becker, Paula. “Yakima County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, February 25, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7651.

CensusViewer.com. “Harrah, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Harrah.

Data USA. “Harrah, WA.” http://www.datausa.io/profile/geo/harrah-wa.

Ferolito, Phil. “She’s Been Harrah Mayor for 41 Years and Has No Plans to Stop.” Yakima Herald, Yakima, WA, March 5, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/mayor-harrer.

Ford, David. “Diane Sawyer Reporting: ‘A Hidden America: Children of the Plains’ on Friday, October 14.” ABC News, October 11, 2011. http://www.tinyurl.com/children-of-the-plains.

Harrah Fall Festival (website), Harrah, WA. http://www.facebook.com/harrahfallfestival.

History of the Yakima Valley, Washington: Comprising Yakima, Kittitas, and Benton Counties. Vol. 2. Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1919. http://archive.org/download/historyofyakimav02lyma/historyofyakimav02lyma.pdf.

Yakama Nation. “Yakama Nation History.” http://www.yakamanation-nsn.gov/history3.php.

Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic. “About the Clinic.” http://www.yvfwc.com/about-clinic.

Roslyn

CensusViewer.com. “Roslyn, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Roslyn.

Kershner, Jim. “Roslyn: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, December 12, 2009. http://www.historylink.org/file/9239.

The Miner-Echo, Cle Elum, WA. “Girl Works 11 Months as Loader in Mine Here” and “Mother Receives Letter from Spunky Girl Miner,” both circa June 1949. PDF scans of newspaper clippings, Central Washington University ScholarWorks database. http://www.tinyurl.com/gloria-bailey-news-clippings.

Newspaper clipping exhibited at the Roslyn Museum, Roslyn, WA. Visited April 2019.

Roslyn Downtown Association, Roslyn, WA. “About Us.” http://www.roslyndowntown.org/about-us.html.

Roslyn Yard (website), Roslyn, WA. http://www.roslynyard.com.

Signage at Roslyn Historical Cemeteries complex, Roslyn, WA. Visited April 2019.

Suncadia Resort (website), Cle Elum, WA. http://www.destinationhotels.com/suncadia-resort.

Templin, Scott. Interview with the author, April 15, 2019.

Cle Elum

CensusViewer.com. “Cle Elum, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Cle%20Elum.

DiscoverCleElum.com. “See All There Is to Do in #CleElum.” http://www.discovercleelum.com/attractions.

An Illustrated History of Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties: With an Outline of the Early History of the State of Washington. Everett, MA: Interstate Publishing Company, 1904. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Klickitat_Yaki.html?id=K0k9GQAACAAJ.

Kershner, Jim. “Cle Elum: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, October 11, 2003. http://www.historylink.org/file/10646.

Ott, Jennifer. “Sunset Highway.” HistoryLink.org, May 9, 2013. http://www.historylink.org/file/10383.

Pittman, Justin. “Suncadia’s Evolution: Slowly Established Resort Continues to Grow.” Ellensburg Daily Record, Ellensburg, WA, March 16, 2013. http://www.tinyurl.com/ellensburgrecord-3-16-2013.

The Summit at Snoqualmie, Snoqualmie Pass, WA. “History,” http://www.summitatsnoqualmie.com/history.

WhyRoslyn.com. “Exploring Coal Mines Trail,”January 7, 2012. http://www.whyroslyn.com/nearby-places/exploring-coal-mines-trail.

South Cle Elum

Becker, Paula. “Saint Joseph’s Mission at Ahtanum Creek Is Founded in the Yakima Valley on April 3, 1852.” HistoryLink.org, February 23, 2003. http://www.historylink.org/file/5285.

Bentley, Judy. Hiking Washington’s History. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2013.

Caveness, Andrew. Kittitas County. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2012.

CensusViewer.com. “South Cle Elum, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/South%20Cle%20Elum.

Geisel, Theodor Seuss (Dr. Seuss). “The Zax.” In The Sneetches and Other Stories. New York: Random House, 1961.

Gronning, Don. “Town Exists Because of the Milwaukee Road Railroad.” Ellensburg Daily Record, Ellensburg, WA, April 30, 2007. http://www.tinyurl.com/ellensburgrecord-4-30-07.

An Illustrated History of Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties: With an Outline of the Early History of the State of Washington. Everett, MA: Interstate Publishing Company, 1904. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Klickitat_Yaki.html?id=K0k9GQAACAAJ.

Kershner, Jim. “South Cle Elum: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, October 5, 2013. http://www.historylink.org/file/10642.

National Register of Historic Places. “Registration Form: Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad, South Cle Elum Yard,” April 25, 2003. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/9575e14f-72ab-4d4b-9733-a98dd13f7453.

Ott, Jennifer. “Sunset Highway.” HistoryLink.org, May 9, 2013. http://www.historylink.org/file/10383.

Riddle, Margaret. “Chirouse, Father Eugene Casimir (1821–1892).” HistoryLink.org, June 5, 2009. http://www.historylink.org/file/9033.

Kittitas

Caveness, Andrew. Ellensburg. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2009.

CensusViewer.com. “Kittitas, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Kittitas.

Chittenden, Hiram Martin. The American Fur Trade of the Far West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986.

City of Kittitas, WA. “Letter from the Mayor.” http://www.cityofkittitas.com/mayors_corner.html.

Gallagher, Michael. “Bailey’s Bibliomania to Relocate to Kittitas.” Ellensburg Daily Record, Ellensburg, WA, May 18, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/ellensburgrecord-5-18-17.

———. “Winery Opens Wine Tasting Room in Kittitas.” Ellensburg Daily Record, Ellensburg, WA, April 14, 2016. http://www.tinyurl.com/ellensburgrecord-4-14-2016.

Kittitas County Historical Museum, Ellensburg, WA. “Kittitas County History.” http://www.kchm.org/kittitas-county-history.php.

Kittitas County, WA. “About the County.” http://www.co.kittitas.wa.us/about.aspx.

Kittitas Valley Wind Farm (website), Thorp, WA. http://www.kittitasvalleywindfarm.com.

Lowery, Robert. “Enrollment Record Growth Continues at CWU.” Central Washington University News Feed, October 22, 2018. http://www.cwu.edu/enrollment-record-growth-continues-cwu.

Meyers, Donald W. “It Happened Here: Electric Rail Service Crosses Kittitas County.” Yakima Herald, Yakima, WA, April 8, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/yakima-herald-4-8-18.

Roadtrippers.com. “Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad: Kittitas Depot.” http://www.tinyurl.com/milwaukee-road-kittitas.

Schmidt, Danny. “Olmstead Place State Park Offers a Glimpse of Ellensburg’s Pioneer Roots.” Ellensburg Daily Record, Ellensburg, WA, July 31, 2012. http://www.tinyurl.com/ellensburgrecord-7-31-12.

Splawn, A. J. Ka-mi-akin, the Last Hero of the Yakimas. Portland: Kilham Stationery & Printing Company, 1917. http://archive.org/download/kamiakinlasthero00spla/kamiakinlasthero00spla.pdf.

Washington State Parks. “Olmstead Place Historical State Park.” http://parks.state.wa.us/556/olmstead-place.

Yakama Nation. “Yakama Nation History.” http://www.yakamanation-nsn.gov/history3.php.

Entiat

CensusViewer.com. “Entiat, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Entiat.

City of Entiat, WA. “Fire Station Park.” http://www.entiatwa.us/your_community/parks/fire_station_park.php.

———. “First Town.” http://www.entiatwa.us/your_community/history/first_town.php.

———. “Second Town.” http://www.entiatwa.us/your_community/history/second_town.php.

———. “Third Town.” http://www.entiatwa.us/your_community/history/third_town.php.

———. “Waterfront Development.” http://www.entiatwa.us/business_development/marine_and_waterfront_development/index.php.

Entiat Museum (brochure), Entiat, WA.

FindAGrave.com. “Albert William ‘Shorty’ Long.” http://www.findagrave.com/memorial/27305231/albert-william-long.

Lake Chelan Wine Valley (website). http://www.lakechelanwinevalley.com.

Municipal Research and Services Center. “City and Town Classification.” http://www.tinyurl.com/mrsc-city-town.

US Bureau of Reclamation. “Entiat River Tributary Assessment, Chelan County, Washington, Appendix A: Entiat Historical Timeline.” http://www.tinyurl.com/entiat-river-timeline.

Wilma, David. “Chelan County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, January 28, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7624.

Winthrop

Arksey, Laura. “Methow Trading Company in Winthrop Is Incorporated on May 28, 1897.” HistoryLink.org, October 21, 2008. http://www.historylink.org/file/8810.

———. “Winthrop: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, November 11, 2008. http://www.historylink.org/file/8796.

Associated Press, Q13 News Staff, and Tom Yazwinksi. “Massive Okanogan Wildfire Now Largest in State History.” KCPQ-TV, Seattle, updated August 24, 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/okanogan-fire.

Bailey, James C. “Winthrop, Washington: Is This the Next Jackson Hole?” GoNomad.com, accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/winthrop-jackson-hole.

CensusViewer.com. “Winthrop, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Winthrop.

Kershner, Jim. “Lightning Storms Ignite Okanogan Complex Fires, Which Will Soon Grow into Some of the Biggest in Washington.” HistoryLink.org, April 19, 2016. http://www.historylink.org/file/11218.

Methow Reservations. “Winthrop, WA Lodging at Guy Waring Guest House.” http://www.methowreservations.com/lodging/waring.

Methow Trails, Winthrop, WA. “Mission & History.” http://www.methowtrails.org/mission–history.

Shafer Historical Museum (website), Winthrop, WA. http://www.sites.google.com/shafermuseum.org/main.

Sun Mountain Lodge. “About Us.” http://www.sunmountainlodge.com/about-us.

Waring, Guy. Letter to Isabella Stewart Gardner, circa 1911–12. Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston. http://www.gardnermuseum.org/experience/collection/31179. (Page offline as of press time.)

WinthropWashington.com. ” ’49er Days.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/winthrop-49er-days.

———. “Winthrop History.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/winthrop-wa-history.

Twisp

Caldbick, John. “Ku Klux Klan in Washington, 1921–1925.” HistoryLink.org, March 11, 2019. http://www.historylink.org/file/20718.

CensusViewer.com. “Twisp, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Twisp.

TwispWorks, Twisp, WA. “TwispWorks History.” http://www.twispworks.org/about/twispworks-history.

Upper Columbia United Tribes. “Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation.” http://www.ucut.org/members-tribes/confederated-tribes-colville-reservation.

West, Karen. “Twisp: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, October 5, 2011. http://www.historylink.org/file/9943.

———. “When the Klan Came to the Methow.” Methow Valley News, Twisp, WA, September 6, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/kkk-methow-valley.

Pateros

Armbruster, Karla. The Bioregional Imagination: Literature, Ecology, and Place. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012.

CensusViewer.com. “Pateros, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Pateros.

Cipalla, Rita. “Pateros: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, July 31, 2019. http://www.historylink.org/file/20826.

City of Pateros, WA. “History.” http://www.pateros.com/index.php/history.

Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation. “Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation: A Brief History.” http://www.tinyurl.com/colvillehistory.

Evenson, Lindsey M. “Pre-1900s Chinese Placer Mining in Northeastern Washington State: An Archaeological Investigation.” Spokane: Eastern Washington University Masters Thesis Collection, 2016. http://dc.ewu.edu/theses/358.

Flatt, Courtney. “Pateros and North Central Washington Continue Rebuilding 5 Years After Carlton Complex.” NW News Network, July 19, 2019. http://www.nwnewsnetwork.org/post/pateros-and-north-central-washington-continue-rebuilding-5-years-after-carlton-complex.

La Ganga, Maria L. ” ‘Tornadoes of Fire’ Leave Small Washington Town Reeling.” Los Angeles Times, July 21, 2014. http://www.tinyurl.com/latimes-7-21-14.

Pateros Firestorm 2014 Recovery Hub. “Team Rubicon Assistance Available for Pateros, Neighboring Communities,” August 2, 2014. http://www.tinyurl.com/team-rubicon.

Pateros Museum (website), Pateros, WA. http://www.pateros.com/index.php/history/pateros-museum.

PRWeb.com. “Team Rubicon Launches Operation: Humble Trooper in Response to Wildfires,” July 26, 2014. http://www.tinyurl.com/humbletrooper.

Rising from the Ashes: Okanogan County Long Term Recovery. “About Us.” http://www.okanogancountyrecovery.com/about-us.

Ruby, Robert H., John A. Brown, and Cary C. Collins. A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest. 3rd ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013.

Conconully

Caldbick, John. “Panic of 1893 and Its Aftermath.” HistoryLink.org, October 1, 2019. http://www.historylink.org/file/20874.

CensusViewer.com. “Conconully, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Conconully.

Conconully Chamber of Commerce, Conconully, WA. “Outhouse Races.” http://www.conconully.com/outhouse-races.

The Ellensburg Capital, Ellensburg, WA. “Local Citizens Make Last Visit to Deserted City,” October 29, 1932. 6. http://www.tinyurl.com/ellensburgcapital-10-29-32.

Ewanida Rail Records (website). “Ruby Cemetery, Okanogan County, Washington.” http://www.mrail.net/data/cemete/wash/okanogan/ruby/ruby1.htm.

McKnight, Matt M. “Meet the Rural WA Town Privy to Outhouse Races.” Crosscut (website), January 23, 2019. http://www.crosscut.com/2019/01/meet-rural-wa-town-privy-outhouse-races.

Moen, Wayne S. Conconully Mining District of Okanogan County, Washington. Olympia: Washington Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mines and Geology, 1973. http://www.tinyurl.com/conconully-mining.

Oliphant, J. Orin. “Notes on Early Settlements and on Geographic Names of Eastern Washington.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 22, no. 3. Seattle: Washington University State Historical Society, 1931. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/7923/6959.

Steele, Richard F. An Illustrated History of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan, and Chelan Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto00stee/illustratedhisto00stee.pdf.

The Washington Historical Quarterly. “Cowlitz Pioneers,” vol. 16, no. 4. Seattle: Washington University State Historical Society, 1925. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/6909/5979.

Washington State Parks. “Conconully State Park.” http://parks.state.wa.us/410/conconully-state-park.

Riverside

Boom Towns & Relic Hunters of Northeastern Washington (GhostTownsUSA.com). “Riverside.” http://www.ghosttownsusa.com/rside.htm.

CensusViewer.com. “Riverside, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Riverside.

Follansbee, Joe, ed. The Fyddeye Guide to America’s Maritime History. Seattle: Fyddeye Media, 2010.

Kershner, Jim. “Okanogan: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, September 27, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9592.

The Omak–Okanogan County Chronicle. “Two Fires Destroy Riverside,” April 7, 1916. Reprinted in Chronicles of the Okanogan: A History of the Okanogan Valley as Published in the Pages of The Chronicle, 1910–2010. Omak, WA: The Omak–Okanogan County Chronicle, 2011. http://www.issuu.com/omakchronicle/docs/chronicles_of_the_okanogan.

Omak Stampede (website), Omak, WA. http://www.omakstampede.org.

Steele, Richard F. An Illustrated History of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan, and Chelan Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto00stee/illustratedhisto00stee.pdf.

Williams, Allison. “The Kings of Suicide Hill: Inside the Famous—and Deadly—Omak Stampede.” SeattleMet August 2017. http://www.seattlemet.com/articles/2017/7/17/the-kings-of-suicide-hill-inside-the-omak-stampede.

Tonasket

Alba, Michael. “Vacuum Tubes: The World Before Transistors.” Engineering.com, January 19, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/world-before-transistors.

CensusViewer.com. “Tonasket, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Tonasket.

Chalabi, Mona. “What Percentage of Americans Have Served in the Military?” FiveThirtyEight (blog), March 19, 2015. http://www.fivethirtyeight.com/features/what-percentage-of-americans-have-served-in-the-military.

City of Tonasket, WA. “History.” http://www.tonasketcity.org/community/page/history.

———. “Walter H. Brattain.” http://www.tonasketcity.org/community/page/walter-h-brattain.

Compton, William. “From Indian Chief to Farmer: Chief Tonasket.” Boom Town Tales & Historic People (GhostTownsUSA.com). http://www.ghosttownsusa.com/bttales6.htm.

Data USA. “Tonasket, WA.” http://www.datausa.io/profile/geo/tonasket-wa.

History Museum of Canada. “Fraser River Gold Rush,” May 15, 2017. http://www.historymuseum.ca/blog/fraser-river-gold-rush.

Kershner, Jim. “Okanogan: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, September 27, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9592.

Nearby Mountains (website). “Tonasket Mountain, WA.” http://www.tinyurl.com/tonasket-mountain-wa.

Okanogan County Chamber of Commerce, Omak, WA. “US Armed Forces Legacy Project.” http://www.okanogancountry.com/poi/us-armed-forces-legacy-project.

The Omak–Okanogan County Chronicle. “Reservation Opened to Homesteaders,” April 28, 1916. Reprinted in Chronicles of the Okanogan: A History of the Okanogan Valley as Published in the Pages of The Chronicle, 1910–2010. Omak, WA: The Omak–Okanogan County Chronicle, 2011. http://www.issuu.com/omakchronicle/docs/chronicles_of_the_okanogan.

Pilarski, Michael. “Local Food Security in Okanogan County, Washington State.” Friends of the Trees Society, August 15, 2006. Reposted at Columbiana Online. Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20190328211859/http://www.columbiana.org:80/pages/Bioregional_Community.html.

Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC. “Striking It Rich: The Cariboo Gold Rush.” http://www.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/exhibits/bc-archives-time-machine/galler04/frames/strikes.htm.

Teachout, Katie. “Pharmacy to Open in Tonasket.” The Omak–Okanogan County Chronicle, Omak, WA, December 3, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/pharmacy-to-open-in-tonasket.

US Armed Forces Legacy Project (website), Tonasket WA. http://www.veteranlegacyproject.org/About.html.

US Forest Service. “Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Tonasket Ranger District.” http://www.tinyurl.com/usfs-ownf-tonasket.

Washington Trails Association. “McLaughlin Canyon Trail.” http://www.wta.org/go-hiking/hikes/mclaughlin-canyon-trail.

Wilma, David. “Tonasket Native Walter Brattain Named Co-Recipient of Nobel Prize for Physics on November 1, 1956.” HistoryLink.org, January 18, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7613.

Wolff, Francis. “Indian Ambush at McLaughlin Canyon.” Boom Town Tales & Historic People (GhostTownsUSA.com). http://www.ghosttownsusa.com/bttales16.htm.

Oroville

Binns, Archie. The Roaring Land. New York: Robert M. McBride & Co., 1942.

CensusViewer.com. “Oroville, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Oroville.

Dininny, Shannon. “Booming Oroville.” The Seattle Times, April 5, 2008. http://www.seattletimes.com/business/booming-oroville.

Gulick, Bill. Traveler’s History of Washington: A Roadside Historical Guide. 2nd ed. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2005.

Kershner, Jim. “Chief Moses (1829–1899).” HistoryLink.org, December 19, 2018. http://www.historylink.org/file/8870.

National Register of Historic Places. “Nomination Form: Hiram F. Smith (Okanogan) Orchard,” November 12, 1975. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/b336b904-1b78-4d31-a199-fd3c0dc47ed2.

Okanogan Valley Gazette-Tribune (website), Oroville, WA. “About Us.” http://www.gazette-tribune.com/about-us.

TheDiggings.com. “Oroville, Washington, Mining Claims and Mines.” http://www.thediggings.com/places/wa0472411338.

Washington Trails Association. “Similkameen Trail.” http://www.wta.org/go-hiking/hikes/similkameen-trail.

———. “Whistler Canyon Trail.” http://www.wta.org/go-hiking/hikes/whistler-canyon-trail.

Wilma, David. “Okanogan County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, January 21, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7608.

Nespelem

Associated Press. “Anniversary Nears for Nez Perce Leader’s Death in Exile.” Kitsap Sun, Bremerton, WA, September 19, 2004. http://www.tinyurl.com/nez-perce-chief-joseph.

CensusViewer.com. “Nespelem, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Nespelem.

Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation. “Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation: A Brief History.” http://www.tinyurl.com/colvillehistory.

Craig, John. “Town Wrestles with Issue of Mascot Name.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, May 27, 1997. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/1997/may/27/town-wrestles-with-issue-of-mascot-name-many.

Gwydir, R. D. “A Record of the San Poil Indians.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 8, no. 4. Seattle: Washington University State Historical Society, 1917. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/9140/8175.

Nisbet, Jack and Claire. “David Thompson Records First Written Description of the Nespelem Indians and Landscape Along the Columbia from the Mouth of the Sanpoil Through Nespelem Canyon on July 4 and July 5, 1811.” HistoryLink.org, May 8, 2009. http://www.historylink.org/file/9007.

Ruby, Robert H., John A. Brown, and Cary C. Collins. A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest. 3rd ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013.

Schlosser, Kurt. “Native American Robotics Team from Rural Reservation Chases Tech Dreams at GeekWire Bash.” GeekWire, March 6, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/nespelem-geekwire.

Whyatt, Clara. “Nespelem.” GhostTownsUSA.com. http://www.ghosttownsusa.com/nespel.htm.

Elmer City

CensusViewer.com. “Elmer City, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Elmer%20City.

Cousin Sam. “From Pioneers to Power.” Cousin Sam (blog), August 15, 2011. http://www.cousinsam.blogspot.com/2011/08/from-pioneers-to-power-post-10.html.

Go Northwest! A Travel Guide (website). “Grand Coulee Dam Visitor Information.” http://www.gonorthwest.com/Washington/northeast/Dam/damvisit.htm.

KHQ-TV, Spokane. “Colville Tribe Emergency Crews Fighting 3,000-Acre Wildfire near Elmer City,” June 24, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/elmer-city-fire.

Lamb, Allison. “The Town the New Deal Built: Mason City, the Grand Coulee Dam, and Visions of New Deal America.” The Great Depression in Washington State Project, University of Washington. http://www.depts.washington.edu/depress/mason_city_new_deal.shtml.

Northwest Power and Conservation Council. “Grand Coulee Dam: History and Purpose.” http://www.nwcouncil.org/reports/columbia-river-history/grandcouleehistory.

NW Fire Blog. “The Wildfire Log: Colville’s Elmer City Fire,” June 23, 2019. http://www.thenwfireblog.com/2019/06/23/the-wildfire-log-colvilles-elmer-city-fire.

Okanogan County Emergency Management. “About Us.” http://www.okanogandem.org/staff-directory.

Revisiting Washington: A Highway Guide to the Evergreen State (website). “Elmer City.” http://www.revisitwa.org/waypoint/elmer-city.

Shipman, George A. The Grand Coulee Dam Area: A Preliminary Report. Washington, DC: US Bureau of Reclamation, 1953. http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Grand_Coulee_Dam_Area.html?id=dNoiAQAAMAAJ.

The Star, Grand Coulee, WA. ” ‘Elmer City Fire’ Burns Nearly 2,000 Acres North of Town,” updated June 26, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/elmer-city-wa-fire.

———. “Tillman to Serve as Mayor in Elmer City,” updated June 20, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/jesse-tillman-elmer-city.

Tate, Cassandra. “Grand Coulee Dam.” HistoryLink.org, March 10, 2005. http://www.historylink.org/file/7264.

Vestal, Shawn. “An Artist You Probably Know—Even If You Don’t Know Him—Could Use Your Help.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, http://www.tinyurl.com/ric-gendron.

Washington State Auditor’s Office. “Accountability Audit Report: Town of Elmer City, Okanogan County, for the Period January 1, 2012, Through December 31, 2014,” July 18, 2016. http://www.tinyurl.com/elmer-city-washington-audit.

Washington State Transportation Improvement Board. “TIB Work Session, Olympia, WA, January 25–26, 2018.” http://www.tinyurl.com/tib-1-25-26-2018.

Grand Coulee Dam

Benton, Hal. “Bonneville, the Northwest’s Biggest Clean-Power Supplier, Faces Promise and Perils in Changing Energy Markets.” The Seattle Times, updated July 22, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/seattle-times-7-22-19.

Brochure, Fort Okanogan Interpretive Center, Brewster, WA.

Brown, Karina. “Canoe Journey Parallels Tribal Efforts to Return Salmon to Upper Columbia.” Missoula Current, Missoula, MT, June 24, 2019. http://www.missoulacurrent.com/outdoors/2019/06/salmon-upper-columbia.

Caudell, Justus. “Tribes Expect to Move Salmon Above Dams Soon.” Tribal Tribune, July 19, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/tribal-tribune-7-19-19.

Exhibit at Grand Coulee Dam Visitor Center, Coulee Dam, WA. Visited July 2019.

National Park Service. “Washington: Grand Coulee Dam.” http://www.nps.gov/articles/washington-grand-coulee-dam.htm.

Northwest Power and Conservation Council. “Ceremony of Tears.” http://www.nwcouncil.org/reports/columbia-river-history/ceremonyoftears.

———. “Grand Coulee Dam: Impacts on Fish.” http://www.nwcouncil.org/reports/columbia-river-history/grandcouleeimpactsonfish.

Riccitelli, Collin. “Impacts of Damming the Columbia River.” Submitted as coursework for Introduction to the Physics of Energy (PH 240), Stanford University, 2017. http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2017/ph240/riccitelli1.

The Star, Grand Coulee, WA. “Time for Coulee Dam to Pay Up.” http://www.tinyurl.com/time-for-coulee-dam-to-pay-up.

Tate, Cassandra. “Grand Coulee Dam.” HistoryLink.org, March 10, 2005. http://www.historylink.org/file/7264.

US Bureau of Reclamation. “Geology of the Grand Coulee Dam Area.” http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/pubs/geology.pdf.

———. “John W. Keys III Pump-Generating Plant.” http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/cbp/johnkeys/index.html.

———. “Grand Coulee Dam FAQ.” http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/about/faq.html.

———. “Grand Coulee Dam Statistics and Facts.” http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/pubs/factsheet.pdf.

Rock Island

Big Bend Railroad History (website). http://www.bigbendrailroadhistory.com.

Bridgehunter.com. “BNSF: Rock Island Bridge.” http://www.bridgehunter.com/wa/douglas/rock-island-railroad.

CensusViewer.com. “Rock Island, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Rock%20Island.

Chelan County (WA) Public Utility District. “Rock Island Dam.” http://www.chelanpud.org/hydropower/rock-island-dam.

City of Rock Island, WA. “Rock Island Era” (poem by unknown author). http://www.rockislandwa.org/our-area/history/93-rock-island-era.

Data Center Frontier. “Sabey Data Centers Building for the Future on Both Coasts,” February 28, 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/sabey-data-centers.

Ellington, Luke. “The City of Rock Island.” Douglas County (WA) Public Utility District. http://www.douglaspud.org/Pages/the-city-of-rock-island.aspx.

Gathering Our Voice (blog). “Listening Post: Rock Island, Washington.” http://www.gatheringourvoice.org/listening-post/rock-island/227.

———. Interview with Lucy Keane, May 18, 2012. http://www.tinyurl.com/lucy-keane-interview.

Hetterscheidt, Kaitlin. “Could Rock Island Become a Hub for Technology?” NCWLife Channel, Wenatchee, WA, January 25, 2019. http://www.ncwlife.com/rock-islands-become-hub-technology.

Irwin, Mike. “Port Mulls Industrial District at Rock Island Silicon Plant.” Wenatchee Valley Business World, Wenatchee, WA, July 3, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/port-mulls-industrial-district.

Layman, William Denison. “River of Memory: The Columbia, Wild and Free.” Columbia: The Magazine of Northwest History. Spring 2003.

Rock Island Golf Course (website), Rock Island, WA. http://www.rockislandgolfcourse.com.

Rose, Arthur P., and Richard F. Steele. An Illustrated History of the Big Bend Country: Embracing Lincoln, Douglas, Adams, and Franklin Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto01stee/illustratedhisto01stee.pdf.

US Army Corps of Engineers, Northwestern Division. “Columbia River Basin Dams,” May 4, 2012. http://www.tinyurl.com/columbia-river-basin-dams.

Waterville

Arksey, Laura. “Waterville: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, June 8, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9357.

Becker, Paula. “Douglas County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, October 15, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7961.

CensusViewer.com. “Waterville, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Waterville.

Douglas County, WA. “About Douglas County, Washington.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/about-douglas-county-wa.

History.com. “Frederick Douglass,” updated December 4, 2019. http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/frederick-douglass.

———. “Stephen A. Douglas,” updated August 21, 2018. http://www.history.com/topics/us-politics/stephen-a-douglas.

National Register of Historic Places. “Nomination Form: Douglas County (WA) Courthouse,” September 5, 1975. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/fd34d563-d5b7-4252-bc7a-eb1c994c0d4f.

North Central Washington (NCW) Fair (website). http://www.ncwfair.org.

Quitt, Martin H. Stephen A. Douglas and Antebellum Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Rose, Arthur P., and Richard F. Steele. An Illustrated History of the Big Bend Country: Embracing Lincoln, Douglas, Adams, and Franklin Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto01stee/illustratedhisto01stee.pdf.

Seedorf, Rita. “Early Days in Waterville with I. W. Matthews.” The Pacific Northwest Forum. Vol. 9, no. 4. Spokane: Eastern Washington University, 1984.

Viebrock, Margaret. “Coming Home to Wenatchee’s NCW Fair.” The Wenatchee World, Wenatchee, WA, August 21, 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/ncw-fair-wenatchee.

Waterville Chamber of Commerce, Waterville, WA. “Things to Do in Waterville . . .” http://www.watervillewashington.org/thingstodo.html.

Mansfield

CensusViewer.com. “Mansfield, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Mansfield.

“Mansfield Urban Area Comprehensive Plan,” September 9, 2003. http://www.tinyurl.com/mansfield-comprehensive-plan.

Gathering Our Voice (blog). “Listening Post: Mansfield Museum.” http://www.gatheringourvoice.org/listening-post/mansfield-museum-listening-post.

Mansfield Lions Club, Mansfield, WA. “History of Mansfield.” http://www.mansfieldwashington.org/mansfield/history.

Meany, Edmond S. “Origin of Washington Geographic Names.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 11, no. 2. Seattle: The Washington University State Historical Society, 1920. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/6060/5134.

Mikkelson, Jim. “Playday, Community and ‘Old Lace’: A Glimpse into the Mansfield Theatrical Company.” The Wenatchee World, Wenatchee, WA, May 31, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/mansfield-theatrical.

Rose, Arthur P., and Richard F. Steele. An Illustrated History of the Big Bend Country: Embracing Lincoln, Douglas, Adams, and Franklin Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto01stee/illustratedhisto01stee.pdf.

Skoog, Lowell. “On a Wing and a Prayer: The Mountaineering Roots of Northwest Paragliding.” NorthWest Mountaineering Journal, Summer 2007. http://www.tinyurl.com/nwparagliding.

Washington State Historical Society. Map of Douglas County, Washington, 1909–1910. http://www.tinyurl.com/douglas-county-wa-1910.

George

City of George, WA. “A Brief History of the City of George, Washington.” http://www.cityofgeorge.org/history/history.htm.

CensusViewer.com. “George, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/George.

Grant County Economic Development Council. “Ag/Food Processing.” http://www.grantedc.com/key-industries/agfood-processing.

Kooy, Debby. “A Little History of the City of George, Washington,” 2019. http://www.tinyurl.com/a-little-history-of-george.

Live for Live Music. “The Story of the Gorge: How a Broken Dam and Attempted Winery Created the Gorgeous Amphitheatre,” July 23, 2017. http://www.liveforlivemusic.com/features/the-story-of-the-gorge-how-a-broken-dam-attempted-winery-created-the-gorgeous-amphitheatre.

Tour Grant County, WA. “The Gorge Amphitheatre.” http://www.tourgrantcounty.com/directory/the-gorge-amphitheater.

Soap Lake

Bennett, W. A. G. Saline Lake Deposits in Washington. Olympia: Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mines and Geology, 1962. http://www.tinyurl.com/saline-lakes-wa.

CensusViewer.com. “Soap Lake, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Soap%20Lake.

Central Washington University News Feed. “CWU Researcher Receives NSF Grant to Study Soap Lake,” July 18, 2002. http://www.tinyurl.com/cwu-soap-lake-research.

Cooperative Conservation America. “Soap Lake Science and Community Collaborative.” http://www.cooperativeconservation.org/viewproject.aspx?id=268.

Eveleth, Rose. “This Town Has Spent 11 Years Planning a 60-Foot Lava Lamp.” SmithsonianMag.com, July 18, 2013. http://www.tinyurl.com/smithsonian-soap-lake.

Healing Water Spa & Gallery, Soap Lake, WA. “Soap Lake Medicinal Properties.” http://www.healingwaterspa.com/soap-lake-medicinal-properties.html.

Kelly, Daniel. “Forgotten Water Samples Reveal 50-Year History of Soap Lake.” Lake Scientist (website), March 20, 2014. http://www.lakescientist.com/soap-lake-washington-samples.

Kiefer, Kathleen. “Part I, Soap Lake’s Healing Waters, a True Story: The Proof Is in the Oil.” Huckleberry Press, Davenport, WA, October 26, 2015. http://www.tinyurl.com/soap-lake-healing-waters.

———. Soap Lake. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2013.

Masquers Theater. “A Brief History of the Masquers Theater in Soap Lake, WA.” http://www.masquers.com/about-masquers/theater-history.

Science Direct (website). “Meromictic Lake: An Overview.” http://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/meromictic-lake.

Soap Lake Chamber of Commerce, Soap Lake, WA. “Brief History of Soap Lake.” http://www.visitsoaplake.com/history.

———. “Visit Soap Lake for Its Healing Waters for Natural Relief from Autoimmune Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis & Psoriasis.” http://www.visitsoaplake.com/pain-relief-from-rheumatoid-arthritis.

The Soap Lake Lava Lamp (retail website). http://www.soaplakelavalamp.com.

Coulee City

CensusViewer.com. “Coulee City, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Coulee%20City.

Coulee City Chamber of Commerce, Coulee City, WA. “History of Coulee City.” http://www.couleecitychamber.com/history.

Dry Falls State Park Interpretive Site signage. Visited April 25, 2019.

Encyclopaedia Brittanica. “Coulee Dam, Washington, United States.” http://www.britannica.com/place/coulee-dam.

Flom, Eric L. “Grant County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, November 15, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/8010.

Revisiting Washington: A Highway Guide to the Evergreen State (website). “Coulee City.” http://www.revisitwa.org/waypoint/coulee-city.

Sun Basin Vacationland: Your Guide to the Columbia Basin Recreation Area of Eastern Washington. Soap Lake, WA: Soap Lake Printing Co., 1962. Catalog no. 2004.012.0001, Moses Lake Museum & Art Center, Moses Lake, WA. http://www.tinyurl.com/sun-basin-vacationland.

Third Annual Premium List, Grant County Agricultural Fair, Friday and Saturday, Sept. 4 and 5, 1925, Neppel, Wash. Neppel, WA: Brown Neppel Storage Co., 1925. Catalog no. 2006.018.0001, Moses Lake Museum & Art Center, Moses Lake, WA. http://www.tinyurl.com/grant-county-ag-fair-1925.

Krupp

Data USA. “Krupp, WA.” http://www.datausa.io/profile/geo/krupp-wa.

Clay, Dennis L. “Kallenberger Continues with Krupp History.” Columbia Basin Herald, Moses Lake, WA, December 23, 2015. http://www.columbiabasinherald.com/community/bitsandpieces/article_713d80ec-a5d4-11e5-b653-e32e255b9ec5.html. (Page offline as of press time.)

HighLine Grain Growers Inc. “About Us Is About Them.” http://www.highlinegrain.com/fccp-about-16805.

“Jakob and Katharina Hutter: Anabaptist Martyrs.” Plough Quarterly, March 24, 2016. http://www.plough.com/en/topics/faith/witness/jakob-and-katharina-hutter.

The Odessa Record, Odessa, WA. “Marlin Church Closing,” September 25, 2013. http://www.tinyurl.com/marlin-church-closing.

Seven, Richard. “A Road Less Taken: Highway 28 Travels to Wide Horizons and Lives Lived Differently.” The Seattle Times, October 4, 1998. http://archive.seattletimes.com/archive/?date=19981004&slug=2775586.

Benton City

Cary, Annette. “Looking for Work? Hanford Vit Plant to Fill Up to 300 Jobs.” Tri-City Herald, Kennewick, WA, October 20, 2018. http://www.tri-cityherald.com/news/local/hanford/article220384275.html.

Conroy, Bill. “Wine Country’s Nuclear Threat.” The Daily Beast, updated April 14, 2017. http://www.tinyurl.com/winecountrysnuclearthreat.

Fowler, Richard A., and Michael J. Scott. Hanford and the Tri-Cities Economy: Historical Trends 1970–2008, October 1, 2009. http://www.doi.org/10.2172/1015913.

History Committee of the Community Development Program, Benton City, WA. History of Benton City Washington, 1853–1959. 1959. http://www.washingtonruralheritage.org/digital/collection/bentoncity/id/453.

Kershner, Kate. “Benton City: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, May 21, 2013. http://www.historylink.org/file/10389.

Red Mountain AVA Alliance. “Technical Information.” http://www.redmountainava.com/technical-information.

Revolvy.com. “Red Mountain AVA.” http://www.revolvy.com/page/red-mountain-ava. (Website offline as of press time.)

Town of Benton City, WA. “Our History.” http://www.tinyurl.com/bentoncityhistory.

US Department of Energy. “About Hanford Cleanup.” http://www.hanford.gov/page.cfm/abouthanfordcleanup.

———. “Hanford History.” http://www.hanford.gov/page.cfm/hanfordhistory.

Washington State Wine. “John and Scott Williams, Kiona Vineyards.” http://www.washingtonwine.org/wine/history/groundbreakers/john-and-scott-williams.

World Population Review. “Benton City, Washington Population 2020 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs).” http://www.worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/benton-city-wa-population.

Mesa

Clouse, Thomas. “Tiny Town of Mesa Ordered to Pay $175,000 to Former Mayor Over Records Dispute.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, June 15, 2018. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2018/jun/15/tiny-town-of-mesa-ordered-to-pay-175000-to-former-.

Culverwell, Wendy. “Judge Hits Mesa with Budget-Breaking Penalty for Public Records Act Violations.” Yakima Herald, updated June 15, 2018. http://www.tinyurl.com/yakimaherald-6-15-18.

Gibbs, Rafe. “A Ghost Town Comes Back.” Jefferson City News Tribune, Jefferson City, MO, August 12, 1956. 23. http://www.newspapers.com/image/30935845.

Kirk, Ruth, and Carmela Alexander. Exploring Washington’s Past: A Road Guide to History. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995.

US Census Bureau. Washington 2010: Population and Housing Unit Costs. http://www2.census.gov/library/publications/decennial/2010/cph-2/cph-2-49.pdf.

Washington’s Centennial Farms: Yesterday and Today. Olympia: Washington State Department of Agriculture, 1989. http://www.agr.wa.gov/FP/Pubs/docs/WashingtonsCentennialFarms-BW-Web.pdf.

Washington Secretary of State. “Legacy Washington: Franklin County.” http://sos.wa.gov/legacy/cities_detail.aspx?i=34.

Kahlotus

CensusViewer.com. “Kahlotus, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Kahlotus.

Dougherty, Phil. “Initial Phase of Building Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River Is Completed on February 21, 1969.” HistoryLink.org, December 7, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/8022.

The Farmer’s Daughter, Kahlotus, WA. http://www.facebook.com/thefarmersdaughterkahlotus.

Kahlotus School District, Kahlotus, WA. “Town History.” http://www.kahlotussd.org/town-history.

Lambeth, Robert M. “Prehistory in the Palouse: Marmes Rockshelter.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.spokanehistorical.org/items/show/437.

Washington Secretary of State. “Legacy Washington: Franklin County.” http://sos.wa.gov/legacy/cities_detail.aspx?i=34.

Hatton

Almond, Jordan. Dictionary of Word Origins: A History of the Words, Expressions, and Clichés We Use. New York: Citadel Press, 1995.

Becker, Paula. “Adams County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, Juy 8, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7835.

CensusViewer.com. “Hatton, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Hatton.

IMDb. “Wild Harvest (1947).” http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0039994.

Meany, Edmond S. “Origin of Washington Geographic Names.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 10, no. 2. Seattle: The Washington University State Historical Society, 1919. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/5963/5037.

Rose, Arthur P., and Richard F. Steele. An Illustrated History of the Big Bend Country: Embracing Lincoln, Douglas, Adams, and Franklin Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto01stee/illustratedhisto01stee.pdf.

SteamLocomotive.com. “Steam Locomotive Tenders.” http://www.steamlocomotive.com/types/tenders.

Steele, Richard F. An Illustrated History of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan, and Chelan Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto00stee/illustratedhisto00stee.pdf.

Wahl, Ruth Rickman. “Early School Days in Hatton, Adams County, Washington, Circa 1985–2005.” Washington Rural Heritage (website), Adams County Community Archive. http://www.washingtonruralheritage.org/digital/collection/ritzville/id/643/rec/1.

Lind

Ashcroft, Mrs. Walter. “Lind Observes 75 Years of Development and Growth.” The Lind Leader, Lind, WA, June 6, 1963. A1. http://www.washingtonruralheritage.org/digital/collection/ritzville/id/903.

Becker, Paula. “Adams County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, Juy 8, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7835.

CensusViewer.com. “Lind, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Lind.

City of Lind, WA. “1988 Centennial Celebration, Page 3.” http://www.lindwa.com/Carol/centennial3.html.

Lambeth, Robert M. “Milwaukee Road Recreational Trail.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.spokanehistorical.org/items/show/430.

Lind Dryland Research Station, Washington State University. “History.” http://www.lindstation.wsu.edu/history.

Rose, Arthur P., and Richard F. Steele. An Illustrated History of the Big Bend Country: Embracing Lincoln, Douglas, Adams, and Franklin Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto01stee/illustratedhisto01stee.pdf.

Truscott, Seth. “Dryland Roots: WSU Lind Station Looks Back On Century.” WSU Insider (website), May 29, 2015. http://www.news.wsu.edu/2015/05/29/dryland-roots-wsu-lind-station-looks-back-on-century.

Ritzville

Adams County Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition Commission, Ritzville, WA. “Adams County, Washington: The Bread Basket of the World,” 1909. http://tinyurl.com/adamscountybreadbasket.

CensusViewer.com. “Ritzville, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Ritzville.

Eduscapes.com. “History of Libraries: Contemporary Libraries, 1900s.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://www.tinyurl.com/contemporarylibraries1900s.

In-person conversation with librarian at Carnegie Library, Ritzville, WA, June 11, 2019.

Kershner, Jim. “Ritzville: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, May 26, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9396.

National Register of Historic Places. “Registration Form: Ritzville Historic District,” March 28, 1990. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/9993ec76-5d4e-4294-a360-403d048784d6.

Ritzville (WA) Board of Trade. “Free Homes! Adams County, Washington, Ritzville,” 1890. http://www.tinyurl.com/freehomesritzville.

Rose, Arthur P., and Richard F. Steele. An Illustrated History of the Big Bend Country: Embracing Lincoln, Douglas, Adams, and Franklin Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto01stee/illustratedhisto01stee.pdf.

Washtucna

CensusViewer.com. “Washtucna, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Washtucna.

Charles, Dan. “The CRP: Paying Farmers Not to Farm.” National Public Radio, July 11, 2005. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4736044.

Conservation Evidence (website). “Action: Provide or Retain Set-Aside Areas in Farmland.” http://www.conservationevidence.com/actions/156.

Donovan, Peter. “A Small Town Looks to Its Assets.” Managing Wholes (website), Soil Carbon Coalition. http://www.managingwholes.com/washtucna.htm.

Nestor, Sandy. Indian Placenames in America. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2003.

Peot, Catherine Harder. “An Abbreviated History of Washtucna,” 1978. http://drive.google.com/file/d/1_g2Xof3233zl-SWD0NCxNMXCXJaFxyYE/view.

Percy, Joanne. “Washtucna: A History.” Ice Age Flood Explorer (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.floodexplorer.org/items/show/18.

US Department of Agriculture Farm Service Agency. “Celebrating 25 Years of the Conservation Reserve Program.” http://fsa.usda.gov/Internet/FSA_File/crp25homepage.pdf.

Washtucna School District, Washtucna, WA. “Washtucna School & Palouse Falls,” March 4, 2014. http://tucna.wednet.edu/site/Default.aspx?PageID=377.

Prescott

Caldbick, John. “Oregon Improvement Company Completes Purchase of Seattle & Walla Walla Railroad Company and Seattle Coal & Transportation Company on November 26, 1880.” HistoryLink.org, October 9, 2014. http://www.historylink.org/file/10920.

CensusViewer.com. “Prescott, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Prescott.

City of Prescott, WA (website). http://www.prescottwa.com.

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. “History of CTUIR.” http://www.ctuir.org/history-culture/history-ctuir.

DeGrandpre, E. F. “The Pacific Coast Company.” Pacific Coast Bulletin, March/April 1916. Reposted at Black Diamond History (blog), April 17, 2016. http://www.blackdiamondhistory.wordpress.com/2016/04/17/the-pacific-coast-company.

Northwest Code Professionals. “Prescott, WA.” http://www.nwcodepros.com/jurisdictions-we-serve/prescott-wa.

Reed, Norman. “Flour Milling in Washington: A Brief History.” HistoryLink.org, July 11, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9474.

The Times, Waitsburg, WA. “Flathers Sign Dedication,” September 24, 2015. http://www.waitsburgtimes.com/story/2015/09/24/news-briefs/flathers-sign-dedication/8544.html.

Torres, Sandra. The Waitsburg Family, 1858–1900: The Beginning. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse LLC, 2014.

Vintage Vino Girl (website). “The Mullan Road: History Inspires a Winery,” February 2, 2020. http://www.facebook.com/notes/vintage-vino-girl/the-mullan-roadhistory-inspires-a-winery/852863091849110.

Walla Walla 2020. “Historic Sites and Markers” brochure, 2015. http://www.ww2020.net/wp-content/uploads/historic-sites-markers-project-brochure-2-28-15.pdf.

———. “Welcome to the Halfway House on the Mullan Road History Website.” http://www.ww2020.net/history-websites/halfway-house-on-the-mullan-road.

———. “Welcome to the Wallula History Website.” http://www.ww2020.net/history-websites/wallula.

Wood, Dena. “The Tux Is a Legend!” The Times, Waitsburg, WA, October 9, 2014. http://www.waitsburgtimes.com/story/2014/10/09/prescott/the-tux-is-a-legend/6081.html.

Waitsburg

Associated Press. “Fire Destroys Historic Waitsburg Mill.” The Seattle Times, September 7, 2009. http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/fire-destroys-historic-waitsburg-mill.

Baker, Anita. Interview with the author, August 21, 2018.

“Waitsburg, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Waitsburg.

MillPictures.com. “Waitsburg Flour Mill/Preston-Schaefer Flour Mill, Walla Walla County, WA, USA.” http://www.millpictures.com/mills.php?millid=1336.

Paulus, Michael W. Jr. “Waitsburg: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, August 12, 2011. http://www.historylink.org/file/9862.

Time Magazine. “Americana: Press Lord,” July 18, 1983. http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,950959,00.html.

The Times, Waitsburg, WA. “About The Times.” http://www.waitsburgtimes.com/about.

———. “Honoring Waitsburg’s Founders,” August 21, 2014. http://www.waitsburgtimes.com/story/2014/08/21/front-page/honoring-waitsburgs-founders/4978.html.

Torres, Sandra. The Waitsburg Family, 1858–1900: The Beginning. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse LLC, 2014.

USHistory.com. “Rogue River War.” http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h2059.html.

Starbuck

Caldbick, John. “Washington State Grange.” HistoryLink.org, March 3, 2014. http://www.historylink.org/file/10717.

Caudill, Miranda. “History of Starbuck.” Ice Age Floods Explorer (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.floodexplorer.org/items/show/5.

CensusViewer.com. “Starbuck, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Starbuck.

Dougherty, Phil: “Columbia County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, July 11, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7801.

Federal Writers’ Project. The WPA Guide to Washington: The Evergreen State. San Antonio: Trinity University Press, 2013.

First Annual Report of the Board of Directors of the Oregon Railway and Navigation Co. to the Stockholders for the Year Ending June 30, 1880. New York: Evening Post Steam Presses, 1880. http://books.google.com/books?id=Kdo9AQAAMAAJ.

HistoricBridges.org. “Lyons Ferry Bridge,” August 21, 2014. http://www.historicbridges.org/bridges/browser/?bridgebrowser=washington/lyonsferry.

Miller, Charles N. Wealth and Resources of Oregon and Washington, the Pacific Northwest: A Complete Guide Over the Local Lines of the Union Pacific Railway. Portland: Passenger Department of the Union Pacific Railway, 1889. http://archive.org/download/wealthandresour00deptgoog/wealthandresour00deptgoog.pdf.

Scheck, Ronald E. “Lyons Ferry.” Ice Age Flood Explorer (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.floodexplorer.org/items/show/16.

Washington State Parks. “Lyons Ferry State Park.” http://parks.state.wa.us/915/Lyons-Ferry.

LaCrosse

Andrus, Jeff. Interview with the author, July 16, 2019.

Four Directions Institute. “Palouse.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20150425011650/http://www.fourdir.com/palouse.htm.

Ice Age Floods Institute, Kenniwick, WA. “History of the Ice Age Floods Institute.” http://www.iafi.org/about-iafi/iafi-in-the-beginning.

———. “LaCrosse Ice Age Flood Museum Debut,” June 22, 2019. http://www.iafi.org/event/lacrosse-ice-age-flood-museum-debut.

The Lewiston Tribune, Lewiston, ID. “Howard J. Wigen, 84, LaCrosse, Wash.” (obituary), September 3, 2003. http://lmtribune.com/northwest/howard-j-wigen-lacrosse-wash/article_cc8b6275-a33e-5615-8cca-04093ea6c425.html.

Scheck, Ronald E. “Native Palouse Falls Creation Story.” Ice Age Flood Explorer (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.floodexplorer.org/items/show/14.

The Spokesman-Review, Spokane. “June ‘Cindy’ Wigen” (obituary), August 23, 2009. http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/spokesman/obituary.aspx?n=june-wigen-cindy&pid=131729054&fhid=9534.

Stucke, John. “Residents of LaCrosse, Wash., Work to Revitalize Town.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, July 15, 2012. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2012/jul/15/down-but-not-out.

Town of LaCrosse, WA. “LaCrosse History: The Beginning.” http://www.lacrossewa.us/history/beginning.pdf.

US Census Bureau. 2017 National Census Tracts Gazetteer File: Washington. http://www2.census.gov/geo/docs/maps-data/data/gazetteer/2017_Gazetteer/2017_gaz_place_53.txt.

Washington State Parks. “Palouse Falls State Park.” http://parks.state.wa.us/559/Palouse-Falls.

Wigen, Howard Jennings. “Dear Jennifer, As I Remember . . . Love, Gramps.” Town of LaCrosse, WA. http://www.lacrossewa.us/history/jennifer.pdf.

Lamont

CensusViewer.com. “Lamont, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Lamont.

Clouse, Thomas. “Chinese Middle Class Could Be Boon for Washington Ranchers.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, May 23, 2018. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2018/may/23/chinese-middle-class-could-be-boon-for-washington-.

———. “Ranchers Wrangle a Living History out of Eastern Washington Scablands.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, May 23, 2018. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2018/may/23/ranchers-wrangle-a-living-history-out-of-eastern-w.

Culver, Nina. “Friends, Neighbors Help Ill Whitman County Farmer Harvest Fields.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, August 2, 2015. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2015/aug/02/friends-neighbors-help-ill-whitman-county-farmer.

Durham, Nelson Wayne. History of the City of Spokane and Spokane Country, Washington, from Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. Vol. 2. Spokane: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1912. http://books.google.com/books?id=WIQrAQAAMAAJ.

Mathia, Jana. “Lamont Grain Growers to Merge with Ritzville.” Whitman County Gazette, Colfax, WA, April 12, 2018. http://www.wcgazette.com/story/2018/04/12/news/lamont-grain-growers-to-merge-with-ritzville/25193.html.

Plat of Township 20 North, Range 39 East, Whitman County, Washington. Seattle: Anderson Map Co., 1910. http://www.historicmapworks.com/Map/US/68378/Page+055+++Township+20+N++Range+39+E+++Lamont/Whitman+County+1910/Washington.

Spokane Portland & Seattle Railway Historical Society. “History.” http://www.spshs.org/history.html.

Washington State Auditor’s Office. Assessment Audit Report: Town of Lamont, Whitman County, for the Period January 1, 2013 Through December 31, 2014. http://portal.sao.wa.gov/ReportSearch/Home/ViewReportFile?isFinding=false&arn=1015847.

Washington State Wiki. “Lamont (Whitman County).” http://www.washingtonstate.fandom.com/wiki/Lamont_(Whitman_County).

The World of Lamont, Washington (blog). “Iconic Lamont Town Sign Goes Missing! Mayor Hot on Trail of Sticky-Fingered Miscreants!,” June 15. 2010. http://lamont-wa.blogspot.com/2010/06/iconic-lamont-town-sign-goes-missing.html.

St. John

CensusViewer.com. “St. John, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/St%20John.

Exhibit at St. John Heritage Museum, St. John, WA. Visited June 11, 2019.

An Illustrated History of Whitman County, State of Washington. Spokane: W. H. Lever, Publisher, 1901. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Whitman_County.html?id=ajFEAQAAMAAJ.

In-person conversation with owner of Welcome Home, St. John, WA. June 11, 2019.

Kwak, Young. “The Lives of St. John: How a Small Town on the Palouse is Beating the Odds.” The Inlander, Spokane, July 21, 2010. http://www.inlander.com/spokane/the-lives-of-st-john/Content?oid=2132512.

National Geographic Resource Library (website). “Loess.” http://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/loess.

PalouseBrand.com. “Palouse History.” http://www.palousebrand.com/pages/palouse-history.

Washington Rural Heritage (website). “Whitman County Heritage: Edward Talert St. John, St. John, Washington, Circa 1890.” http://www.washingtonruralheritage.org/digital/collection/whitman/id/1062.

———. “Whitman County Heritage: The History of the Lamont Bank in St. John, Washington, 1999.” http://www.washingtonruralheritage.org/digital/collection/whitman/id/784.

Rosalia

An Illustrated History of Whitman County, State of Washington. Spokane: W. H. Lever, Publisher, 1901. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Whitman_County.html?id=ajFEAQAAMAAJ.

Buhr, Tony, and Eric Francavilla. “Rosalia on List of Struggling Locations.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, May 8, 2013. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2013/may/08/rosalia-on-list-of-struggling-locations.

CensusViewer.com. “Rosalia, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Rosalia.

Coeur d’Alene Tribe (website). http://www.cdatribe-nsn.gov.

Dougherty, Phil. “Whitman County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, October 13, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7882.

Lander, Douglas, photographer. “Historic Howard Street Clock (1905), Rosalia, Washington, USA.” Alamy Stock Photo (website). http://www.alamy.com/historic-howard-street-clock-1905-rosalia-washington-usa-formerly-image66085536.html.

National Register of Historic Places. “Registration Form: Central Service Station (Texaco Station), Rosalia, WA,” April 24, 2007. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/8bcd5ebf-d315-475b-b16f-a8515ba40e60.

———. “Washington State Bridge Inventory: Rosalia Railroad Bridge,” October 1979. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/07b7f305-7d2f-4463-846a-d93fda36a2ee.

The Palouse Scenic Byway (website). “Rosalia Battle Days.” http://www.palousescenicbyway.org/event/rosalia-battle-days. (Page offline as of press time.)

Washngton State Parks. “Steptoe Battlefield State Park Heritage Site.” http://parks.state.wa.us/591/Steptoe-Battlefield.

Oakesdale

An Illustrated History of Whitman County, State of Washington. Spokane: W. H. Lever, Publisher, 1901. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Whitman_County.html?id=ajFEAQAAMAAJ.

CensusViewer.com. “Oakesdale, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Oakesdale.

League of Women Voters of Pullman, WA. Poverty in Whitman County, Washington, May 2016. http://lwvpullman.org/pdf/PovStudyFinal.pdf.

MaryJanesFarm (website). “About Us: Our Historic Flour Mill.” http://www.maryjanesfarm.org/About/our-historic-flour-mill.asp.

Meyer, Garth. “Old Mill Days Starts Friday.” Whitman County Gazette, Colfax, WA, July 11, 2019. http://www.wcgazette.com/story/2019/07/11/news/old-mill-days-starts-friday/29666.html.

National Register of Historic Places. “Nomination Form: Edwin H. Hanford House,” April 17, 1986. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/4c37792e-1a1b-4437-b42f-f8029d8eee3d.

———. “Nomination Form: J. C. Barron Flour Mill,” February 8, 1978. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/41108fe8-5b71-470c-a63d-fd0d7ba4305a.

———. “Nomination Form: Oakesdale City Hall,” April 29, 1993. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/61e1e2bb-2d56-4d7c-9868-3aa20a431290.

Whitman County Gazette, Colfax, WA. “Oakesdale High 50th Reunion,” August 15, 2019. http://www.wcgazette.com/story/2019/08/15/people/oakesdale-high-50th-reunion/30034.html.

Tekoa

An Illustrated History of Whitman County, State of Washington. Spokane: W. H. Lever, Publisher, 1901. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Whitman_County.html?id=ajFEAQAAMAAJ.

BibleHub.com. “Tekoa.” http://biblehub.com/topical/t/tekoa.htm.

CensusViewer.com. “Tekoa, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Tekoa.

City of Tekoa, WA. “The Founding and Early History of Tekoa.” http://www.tekoawa.com/foundingoftekoa.html.

Empire Theatre (website), Tekoa, WA. http://www.tekoaempiretheatre.com.

Kroin, Makaela, and Toni Droscher. “New Old Time Chautauqua, State Parks to Host Community-Focused Summer Events.” Washington State Parks News Releases, May 18, 2018. http://parks.state.wa.us/CivicAlerts.aspx?AID=390.

Lambeth, Robert M. “Milwaukee Road Bridge in Tekoa.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://spokanehistorical.org/items/show/426.

New Old Time Chautauqua (website). “What Is a Chautauqua?” http://www.chautauqua.org/what-is-a-chautauqua.html.

The Tekoa Story: From Bunchgrass to Grain. Tekoa, WA: Tekoa Community Development Study History Committee, 1962.

Washington State Parks. “Making Merry from the Desert to the Sea: Chautauqua Returns to State Parks for 2018 Summer Tour.” Adventure Awaits (blog), May 16, 2018. http://adventureawaits.com/265/2018-New-Old-Time-Chautauqua-tour-5-16-1.

Wilma, David. “Chautauqua Comes to Vashon Island on August 3, 1885.” HistoryLink.org, April 1, 2000. http://www.historylink.org/file/2260.

Palouse

CensusViewer.com. “Palouse, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Palouse.

City of Palouse, WA. “Solar Farm.” http://visitpalouse.com/solar-farm.

Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission. “The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.” http://www.critfc.org/member_tribes_overview/the-confederated-tribes-of-the-umatilla-indian-reservation.

———. “Umatilla Tribal Lands.” http://www.critfc.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/umatilla-map.png.

National Park Service. “Whitman Mission National Historic Site: Biography of Marcus Whitman.” http://www.nps.gov/whmi/learn/historyculture/marcus-biography.htm.

Tate, Cassandra. “Cayuse Indians.” HistoryLink.org, April 3, 2013. http://www.historylink.org/file/10365.

University of Washington Digital Libraries. “American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Collection: Maps.” http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/maps.html.

Washington State Digital Archives. “Palouse City Council, Resolutions, 1972–2006.” http://digitalarchives.wa.gov/Collections/TitleInfo/2038.

Whitman County (WA) Parks and Recreation Department. “Kamiak Butte County Park.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20191205211033/http://www.whitmancounty.org:80/ssi.aspx?ssid=81.

———. “Self-Guiding Nature Walk for the Pine Ridge Trail at Kamiak Butte” (brochure). Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20161201150252/http://whitmancounty.org/ParksRec/Index_Pages/PDF_Files/kamiak_brochure.pdf.

Yasakawa–Solectria Solar (website). “City of Palouse Well Pump #3.” http://solrenview.com/SolrenView/mainFr.php?siteId=4544.

Uniontown

Artisans at the Dahmen Barn (website). “Story of the Barn.” http://www.artisanbarn.org/story-of-the-barn.php.

CensusViewer.com. “Uniontown, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Uniontown.

Encyclopaedia Brittanica. “Romanesque Architecture.” http://www.britannica.com/art/Romanesque-architecture.

Glowen, Ronald P. Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest: Wars and Treaties (website). Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20170324044641/http://narhist.ewu.edu/Native_Americans/timelines/timeline_wars_treaties.html.

Hirsch, Mark G. “1871: The End of Indian Treaty-Making.” American Indian magazine, Summer/Fall 2014. http://www.americanindianmagazine.org/story/1871-end-indian-treaty-making.

Jackson, Marilyn. Conversation with the author, June 11, 2019.

Lambeth, Robert M. “St. Boniface Church in Uniontown.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.spokanehistorical.org/items/show/425.

Nez Perce County, ID (website). “Thomas Montgomery, Obituary.” http://nezperce.idgenweb.org/obits/montgomery-thos.html.

Town of Colton, WA (website). http://www.coltonwashington.us.

Town of Uniontown, WA. “History.” http://www.uniontownwa.org/our-town/history.

Wawawai Canyon Winery (website), Uniontown, WA. http://www.wawawaicanyon.com.

Pomeroy

Becker, Paula. “Pomeroy: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, September 24, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9578.

Begley, John, and Kris Johnson. “New Pulp Plant Will Invigorate Columbia County.” Tri-City Herald, Kennewick, WA, December 12, 2018. http://www.tri-cityherald.com/opinion/opn-columns-blogs/article222997930.html.

CensusViewer.com. “Pomeroy, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Pomeroy.

Dougherty, Phil. “Garfield County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, May 3, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7728.

Gauger Media Service Inc. “Dayton Chronicle Publishers Acquire East Washingtonian.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20180720223542/http://www.editorandpublisher.com/news/dayton-chronicle-publishers-acquire-east-washingtonian.

Lyman, William Denison. Lyman’s History of Old Walla Walla County: Embracing Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield, and Asotin Counties. Vol. 1. Asotin, WA: The S .J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1918. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/46807.

National Park Service. “Nez Perce National Historical Park: People.” http://www.nps.gov/museum/exhibits/nepe/people.html.

Nez Perce Tribe Cultural Resource Program (website). http://www.nezpercecultural.org.

Pomeroy (WA) Downtown National District. “A History of Garfield County.” http://www.historicpomeroy.com/history/garfieldcountyhistory.htm.

———. “An Economic History of Garfield County.” http://www.historicpomeroy.com/history/garfieldcountyeconomic.htm.

———. “How Pomeroy’s Historic District Was Born.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20191223235013/http://historicpomeroy.com/history/HowPomeroyBecameHistoric.htm.

Suljic, Ajsa. “Garfield County Profile.” Washington State Employment Security Department, November 2019. http://esd.wa.gov/labormarketinfo/county-profiles/garfield.

US Forest Service. “Nez Perce National Historic Trail.” http://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/npnht/home/?cid=stelprdb5245289.

———. Nez Perce National Historic Trail Comprehensive Plan, 1990. http://www.npshistory.com/publications/usfs/region/4/comprehensive-plan.pdf.

Washington-Demographics.com. “Washington Counties by Population.” http://www.washington-demographics.com/counties_by_population.

Asotin

Arksey, Laura. “Clarkston: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, October 24, 2011. http://www.historylink.org/file/9947.

Avery, Happy. “Asotin, City of: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, June 30, 2015. http://www.historylink.org/file/11080.

CensusViewer.com. “Asotin, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Asotin.

City of Asotin, WA (website). http://www.cityofasotin.org/city-of-asotin.

Dougherty, Phil. “Asotin County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, February 14, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7643.

Hansen, Melissa. “Washington’s Easternost Vineyard.” Good Fruit Grower, February 24, 2014. http://www.goodfruit.com/washingtons-easternmost-vineyard.

Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (website), University of Nebraska. “May 5, 1806.” http://lewisandclarkjournals.unl.edu/item/lc.jrn.1806-05-05#lc.jrn.1806-05-05.01.

Odessa

Callaghan, Anna. “Money to Burn.” Mashable, December 31, 2014. http://www.mashable.com/2014/12/31/marijuana-farm-startup.

CensusViewer.com. “Odessa, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Odessa.

Deutschesfest, Odessa, WA (website). http://www.deutschesfest.net.

502Data.com. “Washington I-502 Marijuana Sales Data.” http://www.502data.com.

Kershner, Jim. “History of Wheat.” http://www.wawheat.org/history-of-wheat/history-of-wheat.

Melik, Ella M. “Odessa: Village, City, or What Is It Exactly?” Edited by Dr. Serge Yelizarov. Germans from Russia Heritage Collection, North Dakota State University. http://library.ndsu.edu/grhc/history_culture/history/stpaul/odessa.html.

Miller, Michael M. “A Brief History of the Germans from Russia.” Germans from Russia Heritage Collection, North Dakota State University. http://library.ndsu.edu/grhc/history_culture/history/history2.html.

Niche.com. “Odessa School District, Odessa, WA.” http://www.niche.com/k12/d/odessa-school-district-wa.

Odessa (WA) Chamber of Commerce. “This Is Odessa.” http://www.odessachamber.net/this-is-odessa.

The Odessa Record, Odessa, WA. “About The Odessa Record.http://www.odessarecord.com/about.

Rose, Arthur P., and Richard F. Steele. An Illustrated History of the Big Bend Country: Embracing Lincoln, Douglas, Adams, and Franklin Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto01stee/illustratedhisto01stee.pdf.

TopShelfData.com. “Kush Valley.” http://www.topshelfdata.com/wa/odessa/kush-valley.

Town of Odessa, WA. “History.” http://www.odessawa.com/history.html.

Wilbur

Becker, Paula. “Lincoln County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, July 31, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7859.

CensusViewer.com. “Wilbur, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Wilbur.

Lincoln County, WA. “History.” http://www.co.lincoln.wa.us/history.

Miller, Deborah. “Wilbur, Washington, Has a Wheat-Field Mystery to Tell.” Associated Press/Cleveland.com, updated March 27, 2019. http://www.cleveland.com/nation/2009/08/wilbur_washington_has_a_wheatf.html.

TheDiggings.com. “Wilbur, Washington, Mining Claims and Mines.” http://www.thediggings.com/places/wa0432413487.

Rose, Arthur P., and Richard F. Steele. An Illustrated History of the Big Bend Country: Embracing Lincoln, Douglas, Adams, and Franklin Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto01stee/illustratedhisto01stee.pdf.

Weaver, Matthew. “Crop Circle Draws Visitors.” Capital Press, Salem, OR, updated December 13, 2018. http://www.capitalpress.com/state/washington/crop-circle-draws-visitors/article_5af424f3-d1e4-5742-b0bc-064e4c7ec7ae.html.

Womach, Marge. “History of Wilbur, Washington.” Washington Genealogy (website), December 2005. http://wagenweb.org/lincoln/historyofwilbur.htm.

Davenport

Becker, Paula. “Davenport: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, August 26, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9538.

Black Bear Motel (website), Davenport, WA. http://www.blackbearmotel.com.

CensusViewer.com. “Davenport, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Davenport.

Lincoln County, WA. “History.” http://www.co.lincoln.wa.us/history.

Materials on exhibit at the Lincoln County Museum, Davenport, WA. Visited April 25, 2019.

Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board. “Spokane Tribe.” http://www.npaihb.org/member-tribes/spokane-tribe.

Sprague

CensusViewer.com. “Sprague, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Sprague.

Center for Rural Affairs. “Rural Grocery Stores: Importance and Challenges,” October 2010. Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20200512054152/http://files.cfra.org/pdf/rural-grocery-stores.pdf.

City of Sprague, WA. “About Us.” http://www.sprague-wa.us/about-us.

Giddings, Dorothy. Conversation with the author, June 11, 2019.

Lincoln County, WA. “History.” http://www.co.lincoln.wa.us/history.

Prager, Mike. “Building Collapse Threatens Future of Historic City of Sprague.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, June 13, 2014. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2014/jun/13/building-collapse-threatens-future-of-historic.

The Seven Wonders of Washington State (website). “The Channeled Scablands.” http://www.sevenwondersofwashingtonstate.com/the-channeled-scablands.html.

Sorenson, Eric. “Renaming Negro Creek? Some Say It Honors History; Others Dislike Racial Term.” The Seattle Times, October 15, 1998. http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19981015&slug=2777734.

Washington State Department of Natural Resources. “Committee on Geographic Names.” http://dnr.wa.gov/about/boards-and-councils/board-natural-resources/committee-geographic-names.

Republic

BestPlaces.net. “Politics & Voting in Republic, Washington.” http://www.bestplaces.net/voting/city/washington/republic.

CensusViewer.com. “Republic, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Republic.

City of Republic, WA. “History.” http://www.republicwa.org/history.

———. “How Republic Came to Be,” February 1, 2017. http://www.republicwa.org/history/eureka-how-republic-came-to-be.

Ferry County (WA) Auditor. “November 8, 2016, General Election.” http://results.vote.wa.gov/results/20161108/ferry.

Hecla Mining Co., Coeur d’Alene, ID. “About Us.” http://www.hecla-mining.com/about-us.

———. “History.” http://www.hecla-mining.com/history.

History.com. “California Gold Rush,” updated March 30, 2020. http://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/gold-rush-of-1849.

Jennings, Nicole. “Republic Police Chief Who Opposed I-1639 Details Runs for Governor.” MyNorthwest.com/KIRO Radio, Seattle, July 24, 2019. http://www.mynorthwest.com/1460385/dori-republic-police-chief-govenor.

Kershner, Jim. “Republic: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, June 14, 2009. http://www.historylink.org/file/9050.

Landry, Alysa. “Native History: California Gold Rush Begins, Devastates Native Population.” Indian Country Media Network, January 24, 2014. Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20150418110452/http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2014/01/24/native-history-california-gold-rush-begins-devastates-native-population-153230.

Mustoe, George E. “Geologic History of Eocene Stonerose Fossil Beds, Republic, Washington, USA.” Geosciences 5, no. 3 (2015). http://www.doi.org/10.3390/geosciences5030243.

Prospectors’ Days, Republic, WA (website). http://www.prospectorsdays.com.

Stonerose Interpretive Center & Eocene Fossil Site, Republic, WA. “History.” http://www.stonerosefossil.org/uncategorized/history.

———. “What to Expect.” http://www.stonerosefossil.org/fossilhunting/visitors-information.

Tate, Cassandra. “Gold in the Pacific Northwest.” HistoryLink.org, December 6, 2004. http://www.historylink.org/file/7162.

Springdale

Caldbick, John. “Washington State Grange.” HistoryLink.org, March 3, 2014. http://www.historylink.org/file/10717.

CensusViewer.com. “Springdale, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Springdale.

Hanse, Brandon. “New Dental Clinic Brings More Modern Facility to Springdale.” The Independent, Chewelah, WA, June 20, 2019. http://www.chewelahindependent.com/new-dental-clinic-brings-more-modern-facility-to-springdale.

Johnson, Ernest R., and Earl Devere Strait. “Farming the Logged-Off Uplands in Western Washington.” Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1924.

Nugent, Walter T. K. Into the West: The Story of Its People. New York: Vintage Books, 2001.

Riddle. Margaret. “Donation Land Claim Act, Spur to American Settlement of Oregon Territory, Takes Effect on September 27, 1850.” HistoryLink.org, August 9, 2010. http://www.historylink.org/file/9501.

Wintur Bison Farm. “How We Fell into Raising Bison.” http://www.winturbisonfarm.com/our-story.

Kettle Falls

Camporeale, Logan. “The City of Kettle Falls.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.spokanehistorical.org/items/show/653.

CensusViewer.com. “Kettle Falls, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Kettle%20Falls.

City of Kettle Falls, WA. “History of Kettle Falls.” http://www.cityofkettlefalls.org/history.

Drake, Ron, and Kristi Trevarrow. Flip This Town (podcast), Episode 11, “Kettle Falls.” http://flipthistown.libsyn.com/episode-11-kettle-falls.

Kettle Falls Grouch (website). http://www.facebook.com/kettlefallsgrouch.

Kettle Falls Historical Center, Kettle Falls, WA. “About KFHC.” http://www.kettlefallshistoricalcenter.com/about-us.html.

National Park Service. Currents and Undercurrents: An Administrative History of Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area (website). Chap. 1, “When Rivers Ran Free.” http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/laro/adhi/adhi1.htm.

———. Currents and Undercurrents: An Administrative History of Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area (website). Chap. 2, “The River Becomes a Lake.” http://npshistory.com/publications/laro/adhi/chap2.htm.

———. “Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area: Old Kettle Falls.” http://www.nps.gov/laro/learn/historyculture/old-kettle-falls.htm.

Tate, Cassandra. “Kettle Falls.” HistoryLink.org, December 27, 2005. http://www.historylink.org/file/7577.

Thompson, David, and J. B. Tyrrell. David Thompson’s Narrative of His Explorations in Western America: 1784–1812. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1916. http://books.google.com/books/about/David_Thompson_s_Narrative_of_His_Explor.html?id=ZhhEAQAAMAAJ.

US Bureau of Reclamation. “Grand Coulee Dam: Cultural History.” http://www.usbr.gov/pn/grandcoulee/history/cultural/index.html.

Washington State Digital Archives. “Treasures of the Archives: The Loss of Kettle Falls,” June 4, 2015. http://digitalarchives.wa.gov/News/View/117.

Waymarking.com. “Kettle Falls Chamber of Commerce, Kettle Falls, Washington.” http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WMJHFQ_Kettle_Falls_Chamber_of_Commerce_Kettle_Falls_Washington.

Marcus

Cantwell, Brian J. “The Amazing Cider-Making Machine of Stevens County.” The Seattle Times, updated October 9. 2005. http://www.seattletimes.com/life/travel/the-amazing-cider-making-machine-of-stevens-county.

CensusViewer.com. “Marcus, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Marcus.

Jewish Museum of the American West. “Marcus Oppenheimer: Jewish Namesake of the Washington State Town of ‘Marcus.’ ” http://www.jmaw.org/oppenheimer-washington-jewish.

Long, Priscilla. “Marcus Oppenheimer, Eponym of Marcus, Washington, Settles on the Columbia River near the Canadian Border in 1862.” HistoryLink.org, July 27, 2007. http://www.historylink.org/file/8232.

National Park Service. Currents and Undercurrents: An Administrative History of Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area (website). Chap. 2, “The River Becomes a Lake.” http://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/laro/adhi/adhi2a.htm.

Oliphant, J. Orin. “Old Fort Colville.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 16, no. 2. Seattle: The Washington University State Historical Society, 1925. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/6790/5861.

Steele, Richard F. An Illustrated History of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan, and Chelan Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company, 1904. http://archive.org/download/illustratedhisto00stee/illustratedhisto00stee.pdf.

University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections. “View of Old and New Marcus, Washington, ca. 1941.” http://digitalcollections.lib.washington.edu/digital/collection/grandcoulee/id/43.

Yetter, Ryan. “Fort Colvile: A Hidden Gem in the Columbia Basin.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://spokanehistorical.org/items/show/687.

Spangle

Brown, Jared. “Mechanical Bull Champion Signed Up on a Whim, but the Contest Was No Bull.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, updated August 25, 2019. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2019/aug/25/mechanical-bull-champion-signed-up-on-a-whim-but-t.

CensusViewer.com. “Spangle, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Spangle.

Colford, Ann M. “Spokane County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, March 13, 2006. http://historylink.org/file/7686.

Edwards, Rev. Jonathan. An Illustrated History of Spokane County, State of Washington. Spokane: W. H. Lever, Publisher, 1900. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Spokane_County.html?id=Qf40AQAAMAAJ.

Fairfield Museum, Fairfield, WA. “Spangle.” http://www.fairfieldmuseumwa.com/spangle.html.

Glover, Jonathan. “$10,000 on the Line as Spangle Hosts World Mechanical Bull Riding Finals.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, August 23, 2019. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2019/aug/23/10000-on-the-line-as-spangle-hosts-world-mechanica.

Lambeth, Robert M. “The Interurban Railroad: Waypoints in the Palouse Tour.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://spokanehistorical.org/items/show/372.

Liberty School District (website), Spangle, WA. http://www.libertysd.us.

Niche.com. “Upper Columbia Academy, Spangle, WA.” http://www.niche.com/k12/upper-columbia-academy-spangle-wa.

Weaver, Charles E. “Geology and Ore Deposits of the Covada Mining District.” Washington Geological Survey Bulletin. No. 16. Olympia: Washington Geological Survey, 1913.

Waverly

CensusViewer.com. “Waverly, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Waverly.

Fairfield Museum, Fairfield, WA. “Waverly.” http://www.fairfieldmuseumwa.com/waverly.html.

Honegger, Mary Jane. Washington State Historic Schools: Status 2002. Olympia: Washington State Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, 2002. http://dahp.wa.gov/sites/default/files/2002WTHP%20Historic%20Schools%20Status%20Report1.pdf.

Edwards, Rev. Jonathan. An Illustrated History of Spokane County, State of Washington. Spokane: W. H. Lever, Publisher, 1900. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Spokane_County.html?id=Qf40AQAAMAAJ.

Lambeth, Robert M. “Qualchan Hanging Site: Waypoints in the Palouse Tour.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.spokanehistorical.org/items/show/370.

———. “Prairie View Schoolhouse in Waverly”. Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.spokanehistorical.org/items/show/436.

Meany, Edmond S. “Origin of Washington Geographic Names.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 14, no. 2. Seattle: The Washington University State Historical Society, 1923. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/6420/5494.

Prager, Mike. “Prairie View School Gets New Life in Waverly.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, January 2, 2014. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2014/jan/02/prairie-view-school-gets-new-life-in-waverly.

Washington State School Directors’ Association, Olympia, WA. Update: Consolidation of School Districts in Washington State, September 2015. http://education.wsu.edu/documents/2015/09/rural-education-center-updated-wssda-consolidation.pdf.

Latah

CensusViewer.com. “Latah, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Latah.

Edwards, Rev. Jonathan. An Illustrated History of Spokane County, State of Washington. Spokane: W. H. Lever, Publisher, 1900. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Spokane_County.html?id=Qf40AQAAMAAJ.

Fairfield Museum, Fairfield, WA. “The Latah Mammoth History.” http://www.fairfieldmuseumwa.com/latah-mammoth.html.

Hill, Kip. “Spokane River Conservationists, State Officials Settle Lawsuit over Polluted Latah Creek.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, March 30, 2018. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2018/mar/30/spokane-river-conservationists-state-officials-set.

Latah Schoolhouse (blog). http://latahschoolhouse.blogspot.com.

National Register of Historic Places. “Nomination Form: Ham-McEachern House (Oatman Residence),” February 8, 1978. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/6aa78a9b-f7a4-42bc-90d4-5201e84060d1.

———. “Supplementary Listing Record: Latah School.” NRIS Reference Number 02001489, December 4, 2002. http://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/d7043a10-b14d-4882-80f8-72659dbabc73.

Percy, Joanne. “Hangman Creek.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.spokanehistorical.org/items/show/693.

State of Washington Department of Ecology. “Hangman Creek Multi-Parameter Total Maximum Daily Load.” http://ecology.wa.gov/Water-Shorelines/Water-quality/Water-improvement/Total-Maximum-Daily-Load-process/Directory-of-improvement-projects/Hangman-Creek.

Rockford

Associated Press/CBS News. “Freeman High School Shooting: Suspect Said He Was Bullied, Police Documents Say,” September 14, 2017. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/freeman-high-school-shooting-suspect-said-he-was-bullied-police-documents-say.

CensusViewer.com. “Rockford, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Rockford.

Coeur d’Alene Tribe. “The Coeur d’Alene Tribe (Schitsu’umsh).” http://www.cdatribe-nsn.gov/our-tribe.

———. “History.” http://www.cdatribe-nsn.gov/our-tribe/history.

Edwards, Rev. Jonathan. An Illustrated History of Spokane County, State of Washington. Spokane: W. H. Lever, Publisher, 1900. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Spokane_County.html?id=Qf40AQAAMAAJ.

Justine, Tara. “The Fort Spokane Brewery: Beer for the Soldiers.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.spokanehistorical.org/items/show/669.

Kershner, Jim. “Chief Spokane Garry (ca. 1811–1892).” HistoryLink.org, August 1, 2008. http://www.historylink.org/file/8713.

Lambeth, Robert M. “Rockford Necktie Festival.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.spokanehistorical.org/items/show/427.

Meany, Edmond S. “Newspapers of Washington Territory.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 14, no. 1. Seattle: The Washington University State Historical Society, 1923. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/6379/5453.

Schultz, R. A. “A Frontier Doctor Rides into Rockford: Dr. William P. Grubbe Settles Down and Builds a Medical Practice.” Spokane Historical (website), Eastern Washington University. http://www.spokanehistorical.org/items/show/733.

Spokane Tribe of Indians (website). http://www.spokanetribe.com.

Town of Rockford, WA. “Story of Rockford.” http://www.rockfordwa.com/story-of-rockford-1.html.

Wilhelm, Honor J. “Rockford, Washington.” The Coast. Vol. VI, no. 4. Vancouver, BC: Coast Publishing Company, 1903. http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Coast.html?id=NbERAAAAYAAJ.

Fairfield

CensusViewer.com. “Fairfield, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Fairfield.

ChamberOfCommerce.org. “The History of Flag Day.” http://www.usflag.org/history/flagday.html.

Edwards, Rev. Jonathan. An Illustrated History of Spokane County, State of Washington. Spokane: W. H. Lever, Publisher, 1900. http://books.google.com/books/about/An_Illustrated_History_of_Spokane_County.html?id=Qf40AQAAMAAJ.

Fairfield Flag Day, Fairfield, WA. “About.” http://www.fairfieldflagday.com/about-2.

———. “Military Wall of Honor.” http://www.fairfieldflagday.com/military-wall-of-honor.

Kershner, Jim. “Jim Kershner’s This Day in History.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, October 15, 2014. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2014/oct/15/jim-kershners-this-day-in-history.

Meany, Edmond S. “Origin of Washington Geographic Names.” The Washington Historical Quarterly. Vol. 9, no. 2. Seattle: The Washington University State Historical Society, 1918. http://journals.lib.washington.edu/index.php/WHQ/article/view/5588/4662.

US Department of Agriculture. Annual Reports of the Department of Agriculture for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1905. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1905. http://books.google.com/books?id=RN1OAAAAMAAJ.

Washington State Library. “Ye Galleon Press Collection.” http://sos.wa.gov/library/ye-galleon-press-collection.aspx.

Washington State University Libraries Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections. “Preliminary Guide to the Ye Galleon Press Records, 1964–2000.” http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu/masc/finders/mssm_063.htm.

Ione

CensusViewer.com. “Ione, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Ione.

Francovich, Eli. “The End of the Scenic Ione–to–Metaline Falls Train Ride Will Impact the Whole North Pend Oreille Valley.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, October 4, 2016. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2016/oct/04/the-end-of-the-scenic-ione-to-metaline-falls-train.

Marion J. Conversation with the author, July 17, 2019.

Kalispel Tribe. “Past, Present & Future.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20190702200239/https://www.kalispeltribe.com/our-tribe/past-present-future.

McClenny, Faith Sheila. Images of America: Pend Oreille County. Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing. 2015.

NextExitHistory.com. “Ione, Washington.” http://www.nextexithistory.com/explore/historical-sites/ione-washington_1. (Website offline as of press time.)

North Pend Oreille Valley Lions Club Railriders, Ione, WA. “2019 Railriders Tickets.” Accessed via the Internet Archive. (Note: The 2020 Railriders season has been canceled due to COVID-19.) http://web.archive.org/web/20191130192741/https://lionsrailriders.com/product/2019-rail-rider-tickets.

Oldham, Kit. “Fur Trader David Thompson Explores the Pend Oreille River In September and October 1809.” HistoryLink.org, january 23, 2003. http://www.historylink.org/file/5097.

Summers, Juana. “New Adventure Rises from Ash of Canceled Train Rides.” KXLY-TV, Spokane, updated December 19, 2019. http://www.kxly.com/news/news-adventure-rises-from-ash-of-canceled-train-rides/712858897.

Upper Columbia United Tribes. “Confederated Tribe of the Colville Reservation.” http://www.ucut.org/members-tribes/confederated-tribes-colville-reservation.

Metaline

Arksey, Laura. “Pend Oreille County: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, January 22, 2006. http://www.historylink.org/file/7618.

Associated Press. “Mine near Metaline Falls to Reopen.” The Washington Times, Washington, DC, April 24, 2014. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/apr/24/mine-near-metaline-falls-to-reopen.

Kershner, Jim. “100 Years Ago near Metaline Falls: Club Explores Gardner Cave.”The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, August 14, 2018. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2018/aug/14/100-years-ago-near-metaline-falls-club-explores-ga.

———. “100 Years Ago: ‘Spectacular’ Pend Oreille Cave Makes Progress Toward State Park Status.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, October 20, 2018. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2018/oct/20/100-years-ago-spectacular-pend-oreille-cave-makes-.

NextExitHistory (website). “Metaline, Washington.” http://www.nextexithistory.com/explore/historical-sites/metaline-washington_1. (Website offline as of press time.)

———. “The Metaline Mining District.” http://www.nextexithistory.com/explore/historical-sites/the-metaline-mining-district_1. (Website offline as of press time.)

Person, Daniel. ” ‘Twin Peaks,’ A 509 Institution.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, October 10, 2014. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2014/oct/10/twin-peaks-a-509-institution.

StateParks.com. “Crawford State Park, a Washington State Park.” http://www.stateparks.com/crawford_state_park_in_washington.html.

TownCharts.com. “Zip Code 99152, Washington Demographics Data.” http://www.towncharts.com/Washington/Demographics/99152-Zipcode-WA-Demographics-data.html.

Waltower, Shayna. “Metaline Falls Miners Prepare for Job Fair After Local Mine Announces Layoffs.” KREM.com (KREM-TV), Spokane, July 9, 2019. http://www.krem.com/article/news/local/pend-oreille/metaline-falls-miners-prepare-for-job-fair-after-local-mine-announces-layoffs/293-0b768520-cd13-43cb-b02f-9c638dd026b2.

Willenbrock, Fred. “Keeping Watch on the ‘Invisible Wall’: On the Trail with the Agents of the Northern Border.” The Spokesman-Review, Spokane, January 6, 2019. http://www.spokesman.com/stories/2019/jan/06/along-an-invisible-wall-agents-patrol-the-us-canad.

Metaline Falls

CensusViewer.com. “Metaline Falls, WA, Population: Census 2010 and 2000.” http://www.censusviewer.com/city/WA/Metaline%20Falls.

Cutter Theatre (website), Metaline Falls, WA. http://www.cuttertheatre.com.

Evenson, Lindsey M. “Pre-1900s Chinese Placer Mining in Northeastern Washington State: An Archaeological Investigation.” Spokane: Eastern Washington University Masters Thesis Collection, 2016. http://dc.ewu.edu/theses/358.

Geranios, Nicholas K. “Washington Mining Region Struggles as It Faces Loss of Biggest Employer.” KOMO-TV, Seattle, August 10, 2019. http://www.komonews.com/news/local/washington-mining-region-struggles-as-it-faces-loss-of-biggest-employer.

Nordstrand, John. “Metaline Falls: Thumbnail History.” HistoryLink.org, November 20, 2009. http://www.historylink.org/file/9216.

Recreation.gov. “Colville National Forest: West Sullivan Campground.” http://www.recreation.gov/camping/campgrounds/231989.

Rural-schools exhibit, Cutter Theatre, Metaline Falls, WA. Visited July 17, 2019.

Washington Climbers Coalition. “Metaline Falls.” http://www.washingtonclimbers.org/index.php/2015/10/13/metaline-falls.